Mandarín jianghuai

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Mandarín jianghuai
江淮官話 / 江淮官话
jiānghuái guānhuà
Faláu en Bandera de la República Popular China República Popular China (ente los ríos Huai y Yangtzé)
Falantes >70.000.000
Familia Sinón-tibetanu

  Sinítico
    Bĕifānghuà (Guan)
      Mandarín
        jianghuai

Alfabetu carácter chinos
Estatus oficial
Oficial en Nengún país
Reguláu por Nun ta reguláu
Códigos
ISO 639-1 nengún
ISO 639-2
ISO 639-3
Mandarín jianghuai.png
Estensión del mandarín jianghuai

El Mandarín del baxu Yangtzé o Xiajiang,[1][2][3][4][5][6] tamién llamáu Mandarín Jiang-Huai[7] pol Ríu Yangtze (Jiang) y el Ríu Huai,[8] ye unu de los dialeutos más diverxentes del mandarín, como los sos vecinos: el Wu, l'Hui, y el Gan.

Localización y carauterístiques[editar | editar la fonte]

67 millones de persones falen el mandarín Jianghuai. Delles carauterístiques del Jianghuai inclúin la retención de les paraes de la sílaba final del Chinu Mediu.[9]

El diccionariu Chinu Portugués, escritu por misineros mientres la Dinastía Ming categorixaba dellos dialeutos del Jianghuai con finales arrondaes. Lasvariantes del Este y el Sur contienen estes finales arrondaes, el dialeutu Nanjing, per otru llau, ta alcontráu n'otru grupu.[10]

El Madarín del baxu Yangtze ye habado en partes de les provincies de Anhui y Hubei al Norte del Yangtze, según en delles árees de Jiangsu[11][12] Norte del ríu,[13] mayoritariamente notable na antigua capital de Nanjing, según en Jiujiang na provincia de Jiangxi. Ye unu de los pocos dialeutos del mandarín que retien el tonu d'entrada (ru sheng 入聲) del Chinu mediu (como una Oclusiva glotal final) como'l Jin,[14] y por esta retención del tonu d'entrada'l Jianghuai comparar colos sos vecinos non Mandarinos del sur. L'enterriáu de la rusheng considérase una carauterística única del Jianghuai que lo estrema d'otros dialeutos del mandarín.[15] Perdióse en gran parte inicial n, reemplazándola con l.

Dellos dialeutos Jianghuai tienen cinco tonos por cuenta de la preservación del tonu del chinu mediu, más que cuatro tonos de mandarín estándar que perdió'l tonu .[16]

En Jianghuai, verbos que signifiquen "pa compartir, p'axuntar, entemecer, p'acompañar" dio llugar a los marcadores d'eliminación que signifiquen "y con" similar a 跟 xen.[17]

La Provincia de Jiangsu contién la frontera na qu'el Jianghuai y el norte de mandarín estrémense.[18]

Jianghuai mandarín comparte delles carauterístiques cola dinastía Ming del mandarín Sur.[19]

La ópera de Beixín tien el so entamu en partes de Anhui y Hubei que falaben esti dialeutu.

Llectures lliteraries y coloquiales[editar | editar la fonte]

La esistencia d'una llectura lliteraria y otra coloquial (文白异读), ye una carauterística peculiar del mandarín de Jianghuai.

Exemplu Llectura
coloquial
Llectura
lliteraria
Significáu Pronunciación en
mandarín estándar
tɕia tɕiɪ oblicuu ɕiɛ
tiɪʔ tsəʔ recoyer tʂai
kʰɪ tɕʰy dir tɕʰy
ka tɕy cortar tɕy
xa ɕia embaxo ɕia
xoŋ xən al traviés xəŋ
æ̃ iɪ̃ estrictu ian
kʰoɛ kua cayida kua
sən tən agachase el toən
kaŋ xoŋ arcu iris xoŋ

Parentescu con otros dialeutos[editar | editar la fonte]

El llingüista Cheng evaluó'l grau de cercanía ente dialeutos utilizando coeficientes de correlación de Pearson. La resultancia foi que los dialeutos orientales del "clúster" Jianghuai se correlacionaban meyor colos dialeutos Xiang y Gan cuando s'utiliza una llista de 35 pallabres. Mientres los dialeutos septentrional y meridional del nun s'arrexuntaben nel mesmu grupu qu'el Jianghuai del Este, mientres el mandarín sepntentrional y meridional yeren supuestamente parientes "xenéticos" del mandarín de Jianghuai.[20]

Jianghuai orixinalmente incluyía al chinu hui, pero ta anguaño clasificáu por separáu del Jianghuai.[21]

Jianghuai mandarín comparte una "capa lliteraria vieya" como un estratu con dialeutos del sur, como'l minnan, el chinu hakka, chinu gan, y el dialeutu de Hangzhou, que nun comparte col mandarín del Norte. Sinón-vietnamita tamién comparte dalgunes d'estes carauterístiques. L'estratu en Minnan consisten específicamente del grupu Zeng y de Geng grupu "n" y "t" final cuando una "i" inicial ta presente.[22][23]

Un profesor de chinu na Universidá de Rutgers, Richard Vanness Simmons, afirma que'l dialeutu de Hangzhou, en llugar de ser Wu, yá que se clasificó por Yuen Ren Chao, ye un dialeutu mandarín estrechamente rellacionáu col mandarín Jianghuai. El Hangzhou dialeutu clasifíquense dientro de Wu. Chao desenvolviera un "Common Wu Silabariu" pa los dialeutos del chinu wu. Simmons afirmó que Chao comparó'l dialeutu de Hangzhou dialeutu al silabariu del Wu y al mandarín Jianghuai, y resultaríen-y más semeyances al Jianghuai.[24]

Delles obres de la lliteratura producida en Yangzhou, como Qingfengzha, una novela, contienen mandarín Jianghuai. La xente en Yangzhou identificaos pol dialeutu que falen, los paisanos falaben el dialeutu, a diferencia de pelegrinos, que falaben dialeutos como Huizhou o Wu. Esto condució a la formación de la identidá basáu en dialeutu. Grandes cantidaes de comerciantes de Huizhou vivíen en Yangzhou y efectivamente yeren responsables de caltener la ciudá a flote.[25]

67 millones de persones falen Jianghuai mandarín. Delles carauterístiques de Jianghua Mandarín inclúin la retención de paraes finales de sílaba del Chinu Mediu. Al igual que Wu, la parada glotal superó la estinguida del Chinu Mediu orixinal p, t, k, y de tres víes llugar oldee tamién foi.[26]

Dellos llingüistes chinos como Ting afirmaron que Jianghuai ye principalmente Wu que contién un superestratu de mandarín.[27]

El llingüista Dan Xu suxurió que Jianghuai mandarín ye un intermediariu col mandarín estándar y el dialeutu Wu tocantes a l'escurrimientu de posposiciones en dialeutos chinos.[28]

La Academia China de Ciencies Sociales taba detrás de la separación de la chinu hui de los dialeutos Jianghuai mandarín en 1987.[29]

Hefei, y otros dialeutos del mandarín Jianghuai, xuntu col Taiyuan y otros dialeutos del Jin pasaron pol procesu d'una parada glotal reemplazando terminaciones consonantes.[30] Anque la mayoría de los dialeutos del mandarín y el dialeutu de Wenzhou con terminaciones del chinu Mediu abandonaron dafechu la parada, según les p, t, k, en Jianghuai, Jin y Wu conviérten-yos nuna parada glotal.[31] Tener un solu tonu qu'entra con una parada glotal ye compartida por Jin, mandarín y dialeutos de Wu.[32]

Distinciones vocáliques son más comunes en Jianghuai mandarín que nel chinu Jin.[33][34]

El llingüista Mateo Y. Chen señaló que dende les sílabas CVQ que tán rellacionaos con chinu mediu tonelada IV caltener en Jianghuai mandarín que la división Jin llombos de mandarín sobre la base de que chinu mediu tonu IV foi calteníu en Jin nun tenía sentíu. Él cunta qu'había una razón independiente pa estremar Jin del norte de mandarín, yá que tien un sandhi tonu únicu.[35]

Cuando Jianghuai mandarín y Wu comparar colos dialeutos de la mariña sureste de China, concluyóse "que los cambeos de tipo cadena en China siguen les mesmes regles xenerales que se revelaron por Labov pa dialeutos americanos y británicos n'inglés."[36]

Comparanza con otros dialeutos del mandarín[editar | editar la fonte]

El mandarín Jianghuai rellacionar colos otros dialeutos del mandarín.[37][38] El mandarín de Jianghuai pertenez al supergrupo mandarín, y ye unu de los ocho subgrupos del mandarín. Los otros siete subgrupos de mandarín son "Nordés, Beijing, Beifang, Jiaoliao, Zhongyuan, Lanyin, Suroeste"[39] Orros llingüistes clasificar en: Jin, Jianghuai, Nordés, Norte, y Suroeste como cinco grupos del mandarín.[40] Some linguists use three major groups to classify Mandarin, in total eight subdialects are included in the three major groups, one of which is Jianghuai.[41] Los llingüistes utilicen los reflexos de la categoría tonu dexáu de clasificar mandarín nos sos diversos grupos distintos. Los grupos más frecuentemente aceptaes inclúin Jianghuai como unu d'ellos, siendo l'otru centru de les Planicies y el suroeste de mandarín.[42] Otru esquema clasifica Norte, Noroeste, Suroeste, y Jiang-huai Mandarín en 4 grupos de mandarín.[43][44]

Jianghuai (esti) el mandarín y el norte de mandarín nun comparten munches pallabres; con frecuencia munches pallabres Jianghuai mandarín nun tienen cognados Norte mandarín, amás de cognados qu'esisten ente los dos mandarines tienen múltiples formes.[45]

El dialeutu Rugaohua de Jianghuai nun sigue la regla sandhi T3 que la mayoría de los otros dialeutos mandarín siguen, con T3 tar ausente d'ella. Los llingüistes especulen que'l dialeutu de Beijing tamién esanició sandhi T3, pero foi resucitáu pa modernu mandarín estándar (putonghua).[46][47]

Nanjing Jianghuai Mandarin caltuvo la parada glotal como una final y dixebra el tonu d'entrada a diferencia de dialeutu pequinés o mandarín del Suroeste, como'l norte de mandarín, que caltién les iniciales vueltes escontra tras.[48] En Jianghuai mandarín, nun esiste'l soníu n, pronúnciase como L; Lo contrario asocedió nel suroeste de mandarín, onde agora namái'l soníu n ta presente mientres L fundió con él. Norte Mandarin nel otru llau, caltién dambos n y L separada. Jianghuai, como'l norte de mandarín, tamién dixebra'l soníu F y X en "xu", ente que nel suroeste de mandarín, X fundió con f de manera que se pronuncia como "fu". En Jianghuai, ən hai "fundíu" n'EN, ente que lo contrario asocedió nel suroeste de mandarín, Norte mandarín caltién tantu como soníos separaos.[49]

Los dos finales de ŋ y n son los únicos qu'esisten en dialeutos de mandarín. Les últimes paraes fundieron nuna parada glotal en Jianghuai mandarín, ente que na mayor parte del suroeste de mandarín que s'esanicien por completu, el norte y el noroeste de mandarín sufrieron cambeos tantu nes sos variedaes de dialeutos. Nanjing mandarín ye una esceición al escurrimientu normal de los medials i, y, y o en mandarín, xuntu con ye esti de Shanxi y dellos suroeste dialeutos mandarín.[50]

Los verbos que signifiquen dar a funcionar como un marcador pasivu axente o una construcción disposición oxeto direutu marcador nel Zhongyuan, Jianghuai, y el suroeste de mandarín. Esto tamién ye compartida pol grammatization de gei (给) en mandarín estándar, una y bones los cuatro son dialeutos mandarín.[51]

Cuando los chinos someter a escuchar a dellos dialeutos como'l norte de mandarín (Yantai dialeutu), el mandarín estándar (putonghua), y Jianghuai mandarín (Rugao dialeutu de Jiangsu), les diferencies "dialeutales cruciales" apaecieron nes sos reacciones.[52]

Prominencia[editar | editar la fonte]

Jianghuai mandarín foi posiblemente'l tonu natal del emperador fundador de la dinastía Ming, Zhu Yuanzhang y munchos de los sos militares y funcionarios civiles.[53]

El "Guanhua koiné" de la era Ming temprana basar en Jianghuai Guanhua (Jianghuai mandarín). Misioneros occidentales y coreanos Hangul escritos del Ming y Nanjing Guanhua dialeutu amosaron diferencies, qu'apuntaben a la Guanhua ser una koiné y amiestu de diversos dialeutos fuertemente basáu en Jianghuai.[54]

Nel "Dicionário Português-Chinês" de Matteo Ricci, les pallabres nesti diccionariu documentan la dinastía Ming mandarín. Un númberu de pallabres paecía derivase de Jianghuai dialeutu mandarín, como "pera, azufaifo, camisa, hachu, azada, allegre, a falar, a axustar, esto ye, de mexar, pa construyir una casa, ocupáu, y sicasí non ".[55]

Dellos llingüistes estudiaron la influencia que Nanjing Jianghuai mandarín tenía na dinastía Ming Guanhua/mandarín.[56] Anque principios de la dinastía Ming mandarín / Guanhua yera una koiné basáu en Nanjing dialeutu, nun foi del tou idéntica a ella, con delles carauterístiques non Jianghuai atopar nella. Francisco Varo encamentaba qu'aprender chinu tien de ser adquirilo dende "non cualquier chinu, namái aquellos que tienen el don natural de falar l'idioma mandarín, según aquellos nativos del rei Provincia de Nan, y d'otres provincies onde la llingua mandarín fálase bien.[57]

Jianghuai mandarín, xuntu con dialeutu pequinés, formó l'estándar pal Baihua antes y mientres la dinastía Qing enriba hasta la so sustitución pol modernu mandarín estándar. Esti Baihua foi utilizáu polos escritores de toa China, independientemente del dialeutu que falaben. Escritores chinos que falaben otros dialeutos tuvieron qu'usar la gramática y el vocabulariu de Jianghuai y el norte de mandarín por que la mayoría de los chinos pa entender la so escritura, otra manera, el chinu que nun falaben dialeutos del sur nun sería capaz d'entender la escritura d'un dialeutu del sur .[58]

Jianghuai tamién influyó nel dialeutu pequinés. El dialeutu de Beijing non yá foi influyíu por diversu dialeutos del norte, sinón tamién de Jianghuai.[59]

El dialeutu tamién s'utilizó como una ferramienta pa identitity y la política rexonal nel Jiangbei y Jiangnan rexones. Ente que la ciudá de Yangzhou foi'l centru del comerciu, floreciente y próspera, consideróse parte de Jiangnan, que foi conocíu por ser ricu, a pesar de Yangzhou taba al norte del ríu Yangzi. Una vegada que la riqueza y la prosperidá de Yangzhou habíense alloriáu, entós foi consideráu como parte de Jiangbei, el "remanso". Dempués de Yangzhou foi retiráu de Jiangnan, los sos habitantes decidieron yá nun falen Jianghuai mandarín, que yera'l dialeutu de Yangzhou. Nel so llugar, reemplazaes Mandarín con Wu y falaron dialeutos Taihu Wu. En sí Jiangnan, múltiples subdialeutos de Wu llucharon pola posición del dialeutu de prestíu.[60]

Hestoria y espansión[editar | editar la fonte]

La evidencia de la dómina de la dinastía Han del Este suxure los dialeutos meridionales incluyíu'l Jianghuai.[61]

Mientres la dinastía Han, el Antiguu Chinu estremar en dialeutos, unu d'ellos llamábase "Chǔ-Jiang-Huai", 憐 lián significaba "amor" nesti dialeutu.[62]

El dialeutu orixinal de Nanjing foi'l dialeutu chinu de Jin del Este. Dempués del llevantamientu Wu Hu l'Emperador Jin y munchos chinos del norte fuxeron escontra'l sur. La nueva capital de Jin del Este foi creada en Jiankang, onde anguaño'l Nanjing ye güei, foi mientres esti tiempu que'l dialeutu de Nanjing empezó a tresformase en Jianghuai del mandarín dende'l Wu. Otros eventos, tales como les rebeliones de Hou Jing mientres la dinastía Liang y l'invasión dinastía Sui de la dinastía Chen resultó na destrucción de Jiankang, mientres la dinastía Ming, Ming Taizu sureños reasitiaos dende embaxo Yangzi y fixeron Nanjing la capital, y mientres el Rebelión Taiping, los rebeldes Taiping apoderar de Nanjing y convertir na capital de los Taiping Xuníu, los combates resultó na perda de la población de Nanjing. Estos eventos xugaron en papel na formación del dialeutu de Nanjing de güei.[63]

Los inmigrantes procedentes del norte de China mientres la metá de la dinastía Song treslladar al sur, colo qu'un tipu de discursu desque'l norte de Wu y Jianghuai patrones de llectura dambos deriven d'estos inmigrantes del norte casi totalmente fíxose cargu de los habitantes orixinales de orellar norte del Yangtze.[64] El Jianghuai, al igual qu'otros dialeutos del chinu tien dos formes de pronunciar pallabres, el Bai (común, vulgar), y el Wen (lliteraria), les formes Bai paecen caltener les formes más antigües d'espresión que data d'antes de la migración en masa na dinastía Song que traxo na pronunciación wen.[65]

Mientres la dinastía Ming Wu los falantes treslladar a Jianghuai rexones de fala, qu'inflúin nos dialeutos Tairu y Tongtai de Jianghuai.[66]

Nes dinastíes Ming y Qing los glablantes de Jianghuai treslladar a árees dialeutales Hui.[67]

Jianghuai mandarín supera agora mesmu al chinu Wu como llingua de dellos condaos en Jiangsu. Un exemplu d'esto ye Zaicheng nel Condáu de Lishui, tanto Jianghuai y como Wu falar en delles ciudaes de Lishui, con Wu siendo faláu pola mayor cantidá de persones en más ciudaes que Jianghuai. El dialeutu Wu llámase "vieya Zaicheng Voz", mientres Jianghuai dialeutu llámase "nuevu discursu Zaicheng", col idioma Wu siendo conducíu rápido a la estinción. Namái les persones mayor utilizar pa falar colos familiares. El dialeutu Jianghuai taba presente ellí dende cerca d'un sieglu, a pesar de que toles árees circundantes alredor de la ciudá tán falando Wu. Jianghuai llindóse siempres dientro de la mesma ciudá hasta los años 60, na actualidá ta superándose al Wu.[68]

Subdialeutos[editar | editar la fonte]

Estremar en tres rama principales, con delles subramas:

  • Dialeutos Hongchao 洪巢片
    La caña más grande y más estendida de Jianghuai mandarín, concentrada principalmente en Jiangsu y Anhui, coles minoríes más pequeñes na provincia de Zhejiang. Estremar nos dialeutos Huai occidental y los dialeutos Huai del Este, colos dialeutos Huai occidental ye la más numberosa de los dos.
  • Dialeutos de Huangxiao 黃孝片
    Mayormente faláu nel este de la provincia de Hubei y Jiangxi norte, especialmente la área alredor de Jiujiang.
  • Aisllaos
    • Junjiahua 軍家話 - Una variedá de Jianghuai mandarín traxo a Hainan y el restu de la mariña sudeste de China mientres la dinastía Ming por soldaos de Jiangsu, Anhui y Henan mientres el reináu de emperador de Hongwu. Mayormente faláu en pequeñes bolses en tou Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan y Fujian provincies.

D'allugamientu claro na clasificación anterior:

Los dialeutos Wuchang, Wuhan, y Tianmen fálense alredor de los llagos Chang-Jiang.[71]

Dialeutu de Taixing.[72][73] Taixing dialeutu utiliza'l calter "na" pa "la construcción d'eliminación".[74]

Dialeutu de Anqing.[75]

Dialeutu de Tongcheng (桐城话)[76]

"Tongdao, Ningyuan, Longshan, Yizhang, Zhijiang" son tamién toos dialeutos del Jianghuai mandarín.[77]

Referencies[editar | editar la fonte]

  1. Jane Garry, Carl R. Galvez Rubino (2001). Jane Garry, Carl R. Galvez Rubino: Facts about the world's languages: an encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present, illustrated, H.W. Wilson. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Under this scheme, Northwestern is renamed Lanying and Xiajiang is called Jianghuai. What is controversial in this scheme is that the dialects spoken in Shangxi and Inner Mongolia have been culled out of the Northwestern Mandarin and a”
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  6. chinu tradicional: 下江官話, chinu simplificáu: 下江官话, pinyin: xiàjiāng guānhuà
  7. chinu tradicional: 江淮官話, chinu simplificáu: 江淮官话, pinyin: jiānghuái guānhuà
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  9. Sun-Ah Jun (2005). Sun-Ah Jun: Prosodic typology: the phonology of intonation and phrasing, Volume 1, illustrated, Oxford University Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011.
  10. (2007) Ming studies, Issue 56. Ming studies. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “group, to which Nanjingese belongs. Rounded finals, on the other hand, are found in the eastern and southeastern Jiang-Huai dialects. The PCD language patterns with dialects of this type here. Let us now consider one more set of”
  11. Andrew Simpson (2007). Andrew Simpson: [http://books.google.com/books?id=F3XvBbdWCKYC&pg=PA143&dq=Guizhou+Jiang-Huai+Mandarin+Jiangsu,+Anhui,+Hubei+Jin+45+Shanxi+Wu+70+Shanghai,+Southern+Jiangsu,+Zhejiang+Hui+32&hl=en&ei=YOWcTv3EJani0QGE0rSuCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&vei=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Guizhou%20Jiang-Huai%20Mandarin%20Jiangsu%2C%20Anhui%2C%20Hubei%20Jin%2045%20Shanxi%20Wu%2070%20Shanghai%2C%20Southern%20Jiangsu%2C%20Zhejiang%20Hui%2032&f=false Language and national identity in Asia], illustrated, Oxford University Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Guizhou Jiang-Huai Mandarin Jiangsu, Anhui, Hubei Jin 45 Shanxi Wu 70 Shanghai, Southern Jiangsu, Zhejiang Hui 32”
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  14. Maria Kurpaska (2010). Chinese language(s): a look through the prism of The great dictionary of modern Chinese dialects, illustrated, Walter de Gruyter. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011.
  15. Maria Kurpaska (2010). Chinese language(s): a look through the prism of The great dictionary of modern Chinese dialects, illustrated, Walter de Gruyter. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011.
  16. John H. McWhorter (2007). Language interrupted: signs of non-native acquisition in standard language grammars, illustrated, Oxford University Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Por casu, munchos dialeutos mandarín tienen más de cuatro tonos. Hangzhou tien non menos de siete, de tal manera que yá non se considera un dialeutu Wu (Simmons, 1992; Baxter 2000, 106-8). Na rexón de Jiang-Huai dialeutos de cinco tonos nun son infrecuentes, colos seis tonos reportaos na frontera norte / central (Norman 1988, 194). Estos representen una retención d'unu de los cuatro tonos orixinales de china Mediu (el tonu RU), a diferencia de la carauterística Mandarin más común de perder esti tonu, ente que'l colapsu del rexistru de dos víes distinción ente los otros trés nun tonu de cuatro oldear nun depende de rexistru”
  17. Felix K. Ameka, Alan Charles Dench, Nicholas Evans (2006). Felix K. Ameka, Alan Charles Dench, Nicholas Evans: Catching language: the standing challenge of grammar writing, illustrated, Walter de Gruyter. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Comitatives > Marcadores de la eliminación, por casu cognados y sinónimos de ka en Min dialeutos, t'ung11 y lau11 en dialeutos hakka, tse 45 en Shaoxing (Wu); GN en dialeutos Jiang Huai-mandarín, toos colos significaos comitative 'y con' lo que puede ser”
  18. (1989) Fang yan, Issues 1-4. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Polo que la llende ente Jianghuai mandarín y el norte de mandarín en Northren diferencies JiangsQ Bao fonétiques y semeyances ente los dialeutos Un glosariu d'espresiones nel dialeutu de Shanghai (I)泊幻叮血 gandLoY 私叩吃 LIR 勺呂 L 怕” (the University of Michigan) [1]
  19. 中央硏究院. 第2屆國際漢學會議論文集編輯委員會, 中央硏究院 (1989). 中央硏究院第2屆國際漢學會議論文集: 中華民國七十五年十二月廿九日至卅一日, Volume 2, Part 1. 中央硏究院. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Therefore, we might interpret the RES ts, ts', s as reflecting a phonological feature of the Southern Mandarin dialect of the Ming dynasty. This feature is also found among the modern Jiang-Huai dialects such as YC. It might also be a reflection of the dialect features of MH and AM.” (the University of California)
  20. Royal Society (Great Britain), JSTOR (Organization) (2005). Proceedings, Volume 272, Pages 877-1304. Royal Society of London. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “There is much conflict between and within Mandarin and Wu, which do not cluster for the 35 and 100 wordlists (figure 2). For the 35 wordlist, the Eastern Jianghuai Mandarin dialects (Yingshan, Wuhan) cluster with their geographical neighbours Xiang and Gan, but do not cluster with their putative genetic northern and southern Mandarin relatives.” (the University of Michigan)
  21. Barbara F. Grimes, Joseph Evans Grimes, Summer Institute of Linguistics (2000). Barbara F. Grimes, Joseph Evans Grimes, Summer Institute of Linguistics: Ethnologue, Volume 1, 14, SIL International. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Formerly considered to be part of the Jianghuai dialect of Mandarin, but now considered by many to be a separate major variety of Chinese. Dialects are reported to differ greatly from each other. Different from the Huizhou dialect of” (the University of Michigan)
  22. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, Inc. Internet Database Service (2007). Linguistics and language behavior abstracts: LLBA., Volume 41, Issue 4. Sociological Abstracts, Inc.. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “We point out that in fact this stratum is an old literary layer in Minnan dialects. We find it also exists in Hakka-gan dialects, the Hangzhou dialect. South East Mandarins, & Jianghuai Mandarins extensively. In Sinón-annamite. there are” (the University of Michigan)
  23. University of California, Berkeley. Project on Linguistic Analysis (2007). Journal of Chinese linguistics, Volume 35. Project on Linguistic Analysis. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “We find it also exists in Hakka-gan dialects, Hangzhou dialect, South East Mandarins, Jianghuai Mandarins extensively. In Sinón-annamite, there are some similarities to Minnan dialects. Basing on our new findings, we believe that in Song”
  24. David Prager Branner (2006). David Prager Branner: The Chinese rime tables: linguistic philosophy and historical-comparative phonology, illustrated, John Benjamins Publishing Company. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Had Chao developed a syllabary for the Jiang-Huai Mandarin dialects with a diagnostic power and representativeness comparable to that of his Wu Syllabary, and had he prestái Hangzhou in that context, he most surely would have discovered”
  25. Lucie B. Olivuvá, Vibeke Børdahl, Nordic Institute of Asian Studies (2009). Lucie B. Olivuvá, Vibeke Børdahl: [http://books.google.com/books?id=dvFJQ6WE1agC&pg=PA184&dq=jianghuai+mandarin&hl=en&ei=wdl8ToKZOcrI0AHymNDrDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&vei=0CDIQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=jianghuai%20mandarin&f=false Lifestyle and entertainment in Yangzhou], illustrated, NIAS Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Some grammatical features of Yangzhou dialect are shared with Jianghuai Mandarin . Others may be of more limited usage but are used in Dingyuan County (the setting of Qingfengzha), which belongs to the same subgroup of Jianghuai”
  26. Sun-Ah Jun (2005). Sun-Ah Jun: Prosodic typology: the phonology of intonation and phrasing, Volume 1, illustrated, Oxford University Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Across the Mandarin-speaking world, Mandarin is in contact with many other varieties of Chinese, as well as of non-Chinese languages. This contact increases the variability even more. For example, the Jianghuai varieties share many”
  27. Sun-Ah Jun (2005). Sun-Ah Jun: Prosodic typology: the phonology of intonation and phrasing, Volume 1, illustrated, Oxford University Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011.
  28. Dan Xu (2008). Dan Xu: Space in languages of China: cross-linguistic, synchronic and diachronic perspectives, illustrated, Springer. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Examples of such markers include 阿[a/ia/ua/ka/0a] (at, to; perfective and durative marker) in the Taixing dialect, Jianghuai Mandarin (cf. Li R. 1957),倒[ tno] (at, to; durative marker)”
  29. Xiao-bin Ji, Eric Dalle (2003). Xiao-bin Ji, Eric Dalle: Facts about China, illustrated, H.W. Wilson. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “For this reason, the Chinese Academy of Social Science suggested in 1987 that two new groups, the Jin and the Hui, be separated from the northwestern and the Jiang-Huai Mandarin subgroups. Distinctive Features: Mandarin dialects are” (the University of California)
  30. Margaret Mian Yan (2006). Introduction to Chinese dialeutology. LINCOM Europa. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “(Jianghuai Mandarin/Eastern Mandarin), or Xiajiang Guanhua TOUHS (Lower Yangtzi or Eastern Mandarin) (Yuan” (the University of Michigan)
  31. Margaret Mian Yan (2006). Introduction to Chinese dialeutology. LINCOM Europa. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. (the University of Michigan)
  32. Margaret Mian Yan (2006). Introduction to Chinese dialeutology. LINCOM Europa. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. (the University of Michigan)
  33. 國立清華大學 (Hsin-chu shih, Taiwan) (2003). Tsing Hua journal of Chinese studies, Volume 33, Issue 1. 清華學報社. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “ancient entering tonal category (often with a glottal stop ending), its vocalic distinctions have been largely reduced to two or at most three vowels in the Ru-tone words— a far cry from the Jianghuai Mandarin dialects where more vocalic distinctions are retained. Another characteristic feature of Jin-yu is the ubiquitous -i- glide in the rhyme categories De, Mo, and Mai: *-ie?.”
  34. (2003) Qing hua xue bao, Volume 33. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “This dialect is at once conservative and innovative in that while preserving the ancient entering tonal category (often with a glottal stop ending), its vocalic distinctions have been largely reduced to two or at most three vowels in the Ru-tone words— a far cry from the Jianghuai Mandarin dialects where more vocalic distinctions are retained.” (the University of Michigan)
  35. Matthew Y. Chen (2000). Tone Sandhi: patterns across Chinese dialects, illustrated, Cambridge University Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Having preserved MC tone IV hardly justifies setting up Jin as a distinct dialect group: after all, it is well known that the south-eastern branch of Mandarin (ie the so-called Jiang-huai branch) is characterized precisely by its retention of CVq.”
  36. École deas hautes études en sciences sociales, École pratique deas hautes études (France). Section deas sciences économiques et sociales (1985). Revue bibliographique de sinologie, Volume 3. Editions de l'Ecole deas hautes études en sciences sociales. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Diachronic evidence from Wu dialects and Jiang-Huai Mandarin dialects on the one hand and from Southeast China coastal area dialects on the other hand (all dialect material drawn from other authors) show that chain-type shifts in Chinese follow the same xeneral rules as have been revealed by Laboc for American and British English dialects, such as: 1. peripheral vowels rise: 2. non-peripheral vowels usually fall: 3. back vowels move to” (Indiana University)
  37. Grant D. McConnell, Tan Ke Rang (1997). The Written Languages of the World: a Survey or the Degree and Modes of Use: China. -yos Presses de l'Université Laval. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. (the University of Michigan)
  38. Ming Chao Gui (2001). Yunnanese and Kunming Chinese: a study of the language communities, the phonological systems, and the phonological developments. Lincom Europa. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011.
  39. Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie (2008). Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie: Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, illustrated, Elsevier. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “The first branching-out from the trunk is the two major supergroups: Mandarin and non- Mandarin.Mandarin includeseight subgroups:North- eastern, Beijing, Beifang,Jiaoliao,Zhongyuan,Lanyin, Southwestern, and Jianghuai”
  40. Yudong Chen, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (2007). A comparison of Spanish produced by Chinese L2 learners and native speakers---an acoustic phonetics approach. ProQuest. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Mandarin is the biggest dialect family and can be further divided into 5 major subdialect groups: the northern dialect, the northeastern dialect, the Jin dialect, the southwestern dialect and the Jianghuai dialect.”
  41. (2002) David Levinson, Karen Christensen: Encyclopedia of Modern Asia: Malaysia to Portuguese in Southeast Asia, illustrated, Charles Scribner's Sons. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Within the Mandarin family, there are three main divisions comprising eight subdialects: (1) Southern Mandarin includes the Yangtze (Jianghuai guanhua) and Southwestern (Xinan guanhua) subdialects; (2) Central Mandarin includes the” (the University of Michigan)
  42. Y. K. Brown, Anne Anderson (2006). Y. K. Brown, Anne Anderson: Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics: Sca-Spe, 2, illustrated, Elsevier. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Mandarin has the largest geographic spread and population, and can be subdivided into as many as eight subgroups (see Li 1987; cf. Ho, 2003), based largely on the reflexes of the stopped tone category. Of these, the Southwestern (Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou), Central Plains, and Jianghuai ( Southeastern) groups are generally recognized. One variety of Mandarin” (the University of Michigan)
  43. Ping Chen, Nanette Gottlieb (2001). Ping Chen, Nanette Gottlieb: Language planning and language policy: East Asian perspectives, annotated, Psychology Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “They are Mandarin, Yue (Cantonese), Wu, Xiang, Hakka, Gan, and Min; the non- Mandarin dialects are also called Southern dialects. Mandarin itself is composed of four major varieties: Northern, Northwestern, Southwestern, Jiang-Huai (cf.”
  44. International Pragmatics Association (2002). Pragmatics: quarterly publication of the International Pragmatics Association, Volume 12. The Association. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Southwestern Jianghuai Mandarin Mandarin Mandarin Mandarin Labials Plain apicals Apical Sibilants Retro flexe s” (the University of Michigan)
  45. Lleo J. Moser (1985). The Chinese mosaic: the peoples and provinces of China, illustrated, Westview Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Differences Between Eastern Mandarin and Standard Chinese In addition to the variations among cognates, as shown in the list, many common words and phrases in Eastern Mandarin are not at all cognate to those in Northern Mandarin” (the University of Michigan )
  46. Ohio State University. Computer and Information Science Research Center, Ohio State University. Dept. of Linguistics (2001). Working papers in linguistics, Issue 55. Computer and Information Science Research Center, The Ohio State University. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “But it is not the case that all current Mandarin dialects caltenga this sandhi rule. For example, it is non longer in my dialect, Rugaohua, a Jianghuai Mandarin dialect. We may speculate that a certain generation of Rugaohua speakers” (Indiana University)
  47. Keith Johnson (2001). Elizabeth V. Hume: Studies on the interplay of speech perception and phonology. Ohio State University, Dept. of Linguistics. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “But it is not the case that all current Mandarin dialects caltenga this sandhi rule. For example, it is non longer in my dialect, Rugaohua, a Jianghuai Mandarin dialect. We may speculate that a certain generation of Rugaohua speakers”
  48. Graham Thurgood, Randy J. LaPolla (2003). Graham Thurgood, Randy J. LaPolla: The Sinón-Tibetan languages, illustrated, Psychology Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “3 THE REXONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MANDARIN DIALECTS Mandarin dialects can be divided into three regions: Northern Mandarin, Southwestern Mandarin and Jiang- Huai Mandarin. With Putonghua, the Chengdu dialect and the Nanjing dialect as”
  49. Graham Thurgood, Randy J. LaPolla (2003). Graham Thurgood, Randy J. LaPolla: The Sinón-Tibetan languages, illustrated, Psychology Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011.
  50. Jerry Norman (1988). Chinese, illustrated, reprint, Cambridge University Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “In the southwestern dialects they are totally lost in most areas; in the Jiang- Huai region (eastern Mandarin) they have mostly merged as glottal stop. In northwestern and northern Mandarin both types of development can be found.”
  51. École deas hautes études en sciences sociales. Centre de recherches linguistiques sur l'Asie orientale (2008). Cahiers de linguistique: Asie orientale, Volume 37, Issues 1-2. Centre de recherches linguistiques sur l'Asie orientale, École deas hautes études en sciences sociales.. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Get 'give' in Beijing and beyond / CLAO 37(2008) 3-42 Standard Mandarin exhibits patterns of the central linguistic zone with respect to the grammaticalization of gei then naturally follows from the fact that Zhongyuan, Jiang-Huai and” (the University of Michigan)
  52. University Microfilmes, University Microfilmes International (2005). Dissertation abstracts international: The humanities and social sciences. University Microfilmes International. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Cross-dialeutal as well as age differences were observed among Chinese listeners in Experiments BJ , RG and YT using natural speech stimuli from Putonghua, Rugao (a Jianghuai Mandarin dialect, Jiangsu Province) and Yantai (a Northern”
  53. (2007) Ming studies, Issue 56. Ming studies. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “The first Ming emperor, Zhu Yuanzhang t^tcSj!, and a large number of his civil and military officials hailed from the Yangtze watershed and spoke dialects of the southern Mandarin or Jiang-Huai type, to which the dialect of Nanjing”to7IEarm0QGY9b3XDw&ct=result&id=sGkUAQAAIAAJ&dq=The+first+Ming+emperor%2C+Zhu+Yuanzhang+t%5EtcSj%21%2C+and+a+large+number+of+his+civil+and+military+officials+hailed+from+the+Yangtze+watershed+and+spoke+dialects+of+the+southern+Mandarin+or+Jiang-Huai+type%2C+to+which+the+dialect+of+Nanjing&q=zhu+yuanzhang+
  54. (2007) Ming studies, Issue 56. Ming studies. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “missionary transcriptions and of fifteenth century Korean Guanhua transcriptions in the Hangul alphabet, the two syllable types are clearly distinguished. Guanhua and Nanjingese were clearly different here. Thus, we may suspect that the early Ming Guanhua koine was in reality a linguistic amalgam of some sort, though it certainly had deep roots in the Jiang -Huai dialects. In 1421 the Ming political and administrative capital was movéi from”[2]
  55. Michele Ruggieri, Matteo Ricci, John W. Witek (2001). John W. Witek: Dicionário Português-Chinês. Biblioteca Nacional Portugal. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Words for pear, jujube, shirt, ax, hoe, jorful, to speak, to bargain, to know, to urinate, to build a house, busy, and not yet are those typical of the Chiang-Huai or Southern dialects, not the Northern Mandarin dialect.”
  56. 何大安 (2002). 第三屆國際漢學會議論文集: 語言組. 南北是非 : 漢語方言的差異與變化. 中央硏究院語言學硏究所. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “to consider how it may have been influenced by possible relationships and interactions with the Jiang-Huai dialects of the Nanking area. This, in our view , should be done by first undertaking historical studies of these dialects” (the University of California)
  57. 何大安 (2002). 第三屆國際漢學會議論文集: 語言組. 南北是非 : 漢語方言的差異與變化. 中央硏究院語言學硏究所. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Reading system definitely possesses features which are not typical of the Jiang-Huai group as a whole (Coblin Ms. 1,3)/ Careful reading of early descriptions tends to confirm this conclusion. For example, Varo's association of his Mandarin phonology with Nankingese was not absolute and unequivocal. We should recall his counsel that Guanhua be learned from "natives of the Province of Nan king, and of other provinces where the Mandarin tongue is spoken well" [emphasis added]. We find a similar view in Morrison's accounts. On the one hand he says in his dictionary (1815:xviii), "The pronunciation in this work, is rather what the Chinese call the Nanking dialect, than the Peking.” (the University of California)
  58. Ping Chen (1999). Modern Chinese: history and sociolinguistics, illustrated, Cambridge University Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “This is true not only of writers from the Jiang-Huai and Northern Mandarin areas , but also of writers from the other dialect ... Speakers of dialects other than Jiang- Huai or Northern Mandarin had to conform to the grammatical and”
  59. Dingxu Shi (2004). Peking Mandarin. LINCOM EUROPA. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “It is most likely that a new dialect was formed on the basis of these members of the Northern Dialect, especially the Jianghuai Mandarin which was spoken in the Nanking area. If the population did not undergo drastic changes in later” (the University of Michigan)[3]
  60. Dorothy Ko (1994). Teachers of the inner chambers: women and culture in seventeenth-century China, illustrated, annotated, Stanford University Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “With the exclusion of Yangzhou came the denigration of its dialect, a variant of Jianghuai "Mandarin" (guanhua). The various Wu dialects from the Lake Tai area became the spoken language of choice, to the point of replacing guanhua in...”
  61. W. South Coblin (1983). A handbook of Eastern Han sound glosses. Chinese University Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “343). This may indicate that Jiang-Huai was still part of the southern dialect area in llate EH times. 4. Northern Dialects: These are the dialects of the You area and correspond to the northern dialects of the FY system”
  62. Axel Schuessler (2007). ABC etymological dictionary of old Chinese. University of Hawaii Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011.
  63. Maria Kurpaska (2010). Chinese language(s): a look through the prism of The great dictionary of modern Chinese dialects, illustrated, Walter de Gruyter. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011.
  64. University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies (2002). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Volume 65. The School. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Where ordinary Jiang-Huai forms match the Northern Wii reading pronunciations, it is because they have a common origin in the speech types brought south by the mid-Song period northern immigrants. North of the Yangtze, where the indigenous population had been effectively replaced by newcomers, only the northern forms normally survive. South of the River, the northern forms becamea literary stratum in Wu grafted onto the older indigenous pronunciation” (the University of Michigan)
  65. University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies (2002). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Volume 65. The School. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “It is noticeable, however, that across the Jiang- Huai speaking area there is a fairly homogeneous layer of what appear to be older forms, preserved in the popular or bai 白 pronunciations of certain common words. These contrast with literary or wen 文 forms that pattern more consistently with other syllable types in the broader lexicons of the dialects in question. We may guess that these bai forms are in fact substrate survivals of the underlying speech varieties found in the belt before the mid-Song inundation” (the University of Michigan)
  66. University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies (2002). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Volume 65. The School. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “For example, the eastern-most languages of the Tairu or Tongtai branch saw significant immigration from Wu-speaking areas in early Ming times, while in the same period the Huang-Xiao area on the western flank of the family was inundated” (the University of Michigan)
  67. Hilary Chappell (2004). Hilary Chappell: Chinese grammar: synchronic and diachronic perspectives, illustrated, reprint, Oxford University Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “According to Hirata, however, Hui is composed of many layers: its dialects are spoken in an area originally occupied by the Yue i* tribe, suggestive of a possible substrate, later to be overlaid by migrations from Northern China in the Medieval Nanbeichao period and the Tang and Song dynasties. This was followed by the Jiang-Huai Mandarin dialects of the migrants who arrived during the Ming and Qing periods, and more recently by Wu dialects in particular, acquired by peripatetic Hui merchants who have represented an active”
  68. (2006) Journal of Asian Pacific communication, Volume 16, Issues 1-2. Multilingual Matters. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “In Chinese dialeutology, Lishui County is divided by the boundary between Jiang-Huai dialect and Wu dialect. In administrative distribution, alcen towns of the county lie in the Wu Dialect area and five in the Jiang-Huai Dialect area. The former includes 72.2% of the county's population; the latter 17.8% (Guo, 1995). The county seat is Zaicheng Town, also called Yongyang Town. The language varieties spoken in areas surrounding the town all belong to Wu dialect. Two varieties are spoken in the town, "the old Zaicheng Speech" and "the new Zaicheng Speech". The former is a variety of Wu Dialect, and the latter a Jiang-Huai Mandarin Dialect. The old dialect is disappearing. Its speakers, a minority of elders, use the variety only among family members. According to some interviewees over sixty years old, the new dialect has been spoken in the town area for about one hundred years. Before the 1960's, the new dialect was used only inside the town, which served as the county seat, therefore, it is called "Town Speech" or "Lishui Speech".” (the University of Michigan)
  69. Anna Wierzbicka (2002). Cliff Goddard, Anna Wierzbicka: Meaning and universal grammar: theory and empirical findings, illustrated, John Benjamins Publishing Company. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “Table 5.1: Five main Mandarin dialect groupings Northern Mandarin Hebei, including Greater Beijing; ... Gansu; Qinghai; Ningxia Northwestern Mandarin areas of Gansu; Xinjiang and Ningxia dialects Jiang-Huai or Xiajiang Nanjing”
  70. Maria Kurpaska (2010). Chinese language(s): a look through the prism of The great dictionary of modern Chinese dialects, illustrated, Walter de Gruyter. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011.
  71. David Dalby, David Barrett, Michael Mann (1999). David Barrett, Michael Mann, Observatoire linguistique: The linguasphere register of the world's languages and speech communities, Volume 2. Published for Observatoire Linguistique by Linguasphere Press/Gwasg y Byd Iaith. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “"upper-yangtze mandarin" ^transition to jiang- huai "mandarin" ©Chang-jiang lakes (Wuchang... Wuhan+ Tianmen)...”
  72. (1997) Chaofen Sun: Studies on the history of Chinese syntax. Journal of Chinese Linguistics,. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “the north of Jiangsu Province, near the Yangtze river. The Taixing dialect belongs to Jiang Huai Mandarin. It contains a morpheme with three allomorphs, a, nga and ga. As discussed in detail in Li (1957), the morpheme is used in a way similar to zhu, namely as a preposition meaning dao or or zai (depending”
  73. Graham Thurgood, Randy J. LaPolla (2003). Graham Thurgood, Randy J. LaPolla: The Sinón-Tibetan languages, illustrated, Psychology Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “However, in the Taixing dialect (Jiangsu, Jianghuai), it occurs after both Vl and v2,”
  74. Yuzhi Shi (2002). The establishment of modern Chinese grammar: the formation of the resultative construction and its effects. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “In certain dialects na has become the standard marker for the disposal construction such as in the Taixing dialect (B. Huang 1995: 659): (42) (The Taixing dialect) Nin na gue dixia sao-sao -y. you NA Cl. floor clean-clean Per”
  75. John H. McWhorter (2007). Language interrupted: signs of non-native acquisition in standard language grammars, illustrated, Oxford University Press. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “manner extent potential Changli (Northern) .ti .ti liao Xining (Northwest) zhe zhe llixa Chengdu (Southwest) de/lai/delai de/lai/delai de Anqing (Jiang-huai zhe zhe zhe”
  76. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-YWZG200501010.htm
  77. Bangxin Ding, Ai-qin Yu, Anne O. Yue-Hashimoto (2005). 紀念李方桂先生百年冥誕論文集 "Yu yan ji yu yan xue" zhuan kan. Zhong yang yan jiu yuan yu yan xue yan jiu suo. Consultáu lo 23 de setiembre de 2011. “From Yang (1974) examples can also be found, to a lesser degree, in the Xiang dialects (see section 3.6 below) as well as in other Hunan dialects such as Lixian ШШ, Sangzhi #ffi (Jianghuai Mandarin); Tongdao ШШ, Ningyuan Щ$, Longshan f!”


Mandarín jianghuai