Chandrasekhara Raman

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Dr. Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
Vida
Nacimientu Tiruchirappalli7  de payares de 1888
Nacionalidá Bandera de India India
Fallecimientu Bangalore21 de payares de 1970 ()
Estudios
Estudios Universidá de Madrás
Presidency College Traducir
Universidá de Calcuta
Direutor/a de tesis de Vikram Sarabhai
G. N. Ramachandran
S. Pancharatnam Traducir
Llingües inglés
Oficiu
Oficiu físicu, profesor universitariu y cristalógrafu
Emplegadores Banaras Hindu University Traducir
Indian Institute of Science
Universidá de Calcuta
Trabayos destacaos A New Type of Secondary Radiation Traducir
Premios
Nominaciones
Miembru de Royal Society
Academia de Ciencies de la Xunión Soviética
Academia Pontificia de les Ciencies
Academia de Ciencies d'Hungría
Academia de Ciencies de Rusia
Indian National Science Academy Traducir
Graduación caballeru
Creencies
Relixón Agnosticismu
Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman, signature.svg
Cambiar los datos en Wikidata

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (चन्द्रशेखर वेङ्कट रामन्; Trichinopoly, Madrás, 7 de payares de 1888-Bangalore, 21 de payares de 1970) foi un físicu hindú, descubridor del llamáu efeutu Raman[1] que-y supunxo llograr el premiu Nobel de Física en 1930.[2]

Biografía[editar | editar la fonte]

Familia[editar | editar la fonte]

El padre de Raman empezó como profesor nuna escuela en Thiruvanaikaval, volvióse profesor de matemátiques y física na universidá Rayo Narasimha, Visakhapatnam nel estáu hindú de Andhra Pradesh y depués xunióse al Colexo Presidencia na ciudá de Chennai[2][3]

A temprana edá treslladar a la ciudá de Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. Completó la so llicenciatura y doctoráu en física ya inglés nel Colexu Presidencia de Madrás. Llogró plaza nos Servicios Civiles Indios como asistente del supervisor xeneral en Calcuta.

Foi profesor de física na cátedra Palit de la Universidá de Calcuta ente 1917 y 1933 y foi ellí onde foi reconocíu'l so trabayu nel campu de la óptica. En 1919 foi nomáu secretariu honorariu de l'Asociación India pal Progresu de les Ciencies y ente 1933 y 1948 foi direutor del Institutu Indiu de Ciencia de Bangalore. En 1929 recibió'l títulu de caballeru (sir).

Primeramente les sos investigaciones dirixir escontra l'estudiu de les vibraciones y a problemes de acústica, pero escontra 1920 empezó a investigar sobre la difracción de la lluz y la de los rayos X.

En 1928 foi'l descubridor del llamáu efeutu Raman, que tuvo llugar al irradiar un líquidu tresparente o un vapor con una lluz monocromática y estudiar l'espectru de la lluz espublizada, nel que se reparaben variaciones de frecuencia, según les predicciones teóriques formulaes en 1923 por A. G. S. Smekal.

Por esti descubrimientu, en 1930 foi galardonáu col premiu Nobel de Física.

Dende 1949 fundó y formó parte del conseyu directivu del Institutu Raman d'Investigación.

Galardones y reconocencies[editar | editar la fonte]

Raman recibió gran cantidá de doctoraos honorarios y membresías en sociedaes científiques. Foi nomáu fellow de la Royal Society en 1924,[4] y nomáu caballeru (sir) en 1929. Foi estremáu en 1930 cola medaya Hughes, concedida pola Royal Society «polos sos estudios sobre l'anormal dispersión de la lluz».[5]

En 1954 foi galardonáu col premiu Bharat Ratna. Tamién recibió'l Premiu Lenin de la Paz en 1957.

Delles publicaciones[editar | editar la fonte]

Dalgunos de los sos principales trabayos publcados son:

1909
  • "The Small Motion at the Nodes of a Vibrating String", Nature
  • "The Maintenance of Forced Oscillations of a New Type", Nature
  • "The Ectara", J. Indian Math. Club
1910
  • "The Maintenance of Forced Oscillations", Nature
  • "Oscillations of the Stretched Strings", J. Indian Math. Club
1911
  • "Photographs of Vibrational Curves", Philos. Mag., 1911
  • "Remarks on a Paper by J.S. Stokes on 'Some Curious Phenomena Observed in Connection with Melde's Experiment'", Physics Rev.
  • "The Small Motion at the Nodes of a Vibrating String", Phys. Rev.
1912
  • "The Maintenance of Forced Oscillations of a New Type", Philos. Mag
  • "Some Remarkable Cases of Resonance", Phys. Rev.
  • "Esperimental Investigations on the Maintenance of Vibrations", Bull. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci.
1913
  • "Some Acoustical Observations", Bull. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci.
1914
  • "The Dynamical Theory of the Motion of Bowed Strings", Bull. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci.
  • "The Maintenance of Vibrations", Phys. Rev. 1914
  • "Dynamical Theory of the Motion of Bowed Strings", Bulletin, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
  • "On Motion in a Periodic Field of Force", Bull. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci.
1915
  • "On the Maintenance of Combinational Vibrations by Two Simple Harmonic forces", Phys. Rev.
  • "On Motion in a Periodic Field of Force", Philos. Mag
1916
  • "On Discontinuous Wave-Motion – Part 1", Philos. Mag (y S Appaswamair)
  • "On the 'Wolf-Note' of the Violin and Cello", Nature (London)
  • "On the 'Wolf-Note' in the Bowed Stringed Instruments", Philos. Mag.
1917
  • "The Maintenance of Vibrations in a Periodic Field of Force", Philos. Mag (y A. Dey)
  • "On Discontinuous Wave-Motion – Part 2", Philos. Mag (y A Dey)
  • "On Discontinuous Wave-Motion – Part 3", Philos. Mag (y A Dey)
  • "On the Alterations of Tone Produced by a Violin 'Mute'", Nature (London)
1918
  • "On the 'Wolf-Note' in the Bowed Stringed Instruments", Philos. Mag.
  • "On the Wolf-Note in Pizzicato Playing", Nature (London)
  • "On the Mechanical Theory of the Vibrations of Bowed Strings and of Musical Instruments of the Violin Family, with Esperimental Verification of Results – Part 1", Bulletin, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
  • "The Theory of the Cyclical Vibrations of a Bowed String", Bulletin, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
1919
  • "An Esperimental Method for the Production of Vibrations", Phys. Rev.
  • "A New Method for the Absolute Determination of Frequency", Proc. R. Soc. London
  • "On the Partial Tones of Bowed Stringed Instruments", Philos. Mag
  • "The Kinematics of Bowed Strings", J. Dept of Sci., Univ. Calcutta
1920
  • "On the Sound of Splashes", Philos. Mag
  • "On a Mechanical Violin-Player for Acoustical Experiments, Philos. Mag.
  • "Experiments with Mechanically-Played Violins", Proc. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
  • "On Kaufmann's Theory of the Impact of the Pianoforte Hammer", proc. S. Soc. London (y B. Banerji)
  • "Musical Drums with Harmonic Overtones", Nature (London) (y S. Kumar)
1921
  • "Whispering Gallery Phenomena at St. Paul's Cathedral", Nature (London) 1921 (con G. A. Sutherland)
  • "The Nature of Vowel Sounds", Nature (London)
  • "On the Whispering Gallery Phenomenon", Proc. R. Soc. London (y G. A. Sutherland)
  • "On Some Indian Stringed Instruments", Proc. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
1922
  • "Molecular Diffraction of Light" ("Difracción molecular de la lluz")
  • "On Whispering Galleries", Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci.
  • "On the Molecular Scattering of Light in Water and the Colour of the Sea", Proceedings of the Royal Society
  • "The Acoustical Knowledge of the Ancient Hindus", Asutosh Mookerjee Silver Jubilee – Vol 2
1926
  • "The Subjective Analysis of Musical Tones", Nature London
1927
  • "Musical Instruments and Their Tones"
1928
  • "A new type of Secondary Radiation", Nature
  • "A new radiation", Indian Journal of Physics
1935
  • "The Indian Musical Drums", Proc. Indian Acad. Sci.
  • "The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part I", Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (y N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • "The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part II", Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (y N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • "Nature of Thermal Agitation in Liquids", Nature (London) (y B.V. Raghavendra Rayo)
1936
  • "The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part III: Doppler Effect and Coherence Phenomena", Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (con N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • "The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part IV: Generalised Theory", Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (con N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • "The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part V: Xeneral Considerations – Oblique Incidence and Amplitude Changes", Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (con N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • "Diffraction of Light by Ultrasonic Waves", Nature (London) (con N. S. Nagendra Nath)
1937
  • "Acoustic Spectrum of Liquids", Nature (London) (y B. V. Raghavendra Rayo)
1938
  • "Light Scattering and Fluyíi Viscosity", Nature (London) (y B. V. Raghavendra Rayo)
1948
  • Aspects of Science
1951
  • The New Physics; Talks on Aspects of Science (La nueva física; charres sobre aspeutos de la ciencia)
1953
  • "The structure and optical behaviour of iridescent opal", Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci. A38 1953 (con A. Jayaraman)
1959
  • Lectures on Physical Optics

Eponimia[editar | editar la fonte]

Amás de los conceutos físicos que lleven el so nome, tiense que:

Referencies[editar | editar la fonte]

  1. «Sir Venkata Raman – Biographical». Nobel Peace Prize – Official website. Consultáu'l 6 de payares de 2013.
  2. 2,0 2,1 The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930 Sir Venkata Raman, Official Nobel prize biography, nobelprize.org
  3. «Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman A Legend of Modern Indian Science». Government of India. Archiváu dende l'orixinal, el 10 de payares de 2013. Consultáu'l 7 de payares de 2013.
  4. «Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman 1888–1970». Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 17. 1971. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1971.0022. 
  5. "for his studies on the abnormal scattering of light". Boorse, Henry Abraham. The Atomic Scientists: A Biographical History, 340. ISBN 0-471-50455-6.
  6. «Raman» (inglés). Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Flagstaff: USGS Astrogeology Research Program.
  7. Web de jpl. «(55753) Raman».

Enllaces esternos[editar | editar la fonte]

Chandrasekhara Raman