Idioma yola

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Faláu en Bandera de Irlanda Irlanda
Zona Condáu de Wexford
Falantes Estinguida, quedó asimilada al inglés d'Irlanda
Familia Indoeuropea

    Xermánica occidental

Alfabetu Alfabetu llatín
Estatus oficial
Oficial en Estinguida
Reguláu por Nun ta reguláu
ISO 639-1 Non
ISO 639-2 gem
ISO 639-3 yol

El yola ye una llingua estinguida de la familia xermánica occidental falada d'antiguo n'Irlanda, concretamente nel condáu de Wexford, y que'l so orixe ta na evolución independiente del inglés antiguu que llevaron a la parte oriental de la islla les huestes de los normandos Richard de Clare, 2º conde de Pembroke, moteyáu Strongbow, y Robert FitzStephen, sobre 1169.

Esti dialeutu del inglés antiguu, qu'antes de la so estinción recibía'l nome de yola (que significa "antiguu"), evolucionó xebradamente del inglés británicu. Más allá de l'asimilación de numberosos vocablos irlandeses, y debíu quiciabes al aislamientu xeográficu y al calter predominantemente rural de les comunidaes que la falaben, el yola camudó bien pocu col pasu de los sieglos. A principios del sieglu XIX yera yá un idioma distintu al inglés estándar.

El yola siguió falándose na contorna de Forth, nel sur del condáu de Wexford, hasta mediaos del sieglu XIX, cuando empezó a ser movíu pola variante irlandesa del inglés de resultes de los mesmos procesos sociales, políticos y económicos qu'exercieron presión sobre'l irlandés. A finales de sieglu, yeren bien escasos los rastros esistentes del so patrimoniu llingüísticu.

Distribución xeográfica[editar | editar la fonte]


Falóse principalmente nes baronías de Forth y Bargy, dos de los diez baronías del condáu de Wexford, nel sureste d'Irlanda.

Clasificación[editar | editar la fonte]

El yola baxa del inglés antiguu y el inglés mediu, y taba estrechamente rellacionáu colos dialeutos del suroeste d'Inglaterra (condaos de Devon y Somerset), según cola fala de la zona tradicionalmente anglófona del sur del condáu de Pembroke, en Gales.

Los asentamientos urbanos de Wexford y Dublín fueron fundaos polos viquingos]. Ye posible que l'inglés que florió en dambes ciudaes viérase influyíu pol nórdicu antiguu antiguu d'éstos, anque nun esisten pruebes que sofiten esta teoría.

Son tamién escases que evidencien un venceyu col neerlandés. Esta hipótesis sofitábase sobremanera nes semeyances fonétiques ente'l yola y el flamencu occidental, pero estudio posteriores demostraron que se trata d'un claru descendiente del inglés mediu.[1]

La tamién estinguida llingua del norte del condáu de Dublín, el fingaliano tien oríxenes similares y créese que fueron bien similares.

Fonética[editar | editar la fonte]

Al igual qu'asocede nel neerlandés y nes variantes sudoccidentales del inglés, la mayor parte de les fricatives mudes del yola convertir en fricatives sonores. Les vocales del inglés mediu caltiénense, ensin qu'apaecieren amueses del gran cambéu vocálicu del inglés modernu.

Una peculiaridá del yola ye'l treslláu del acentu prosódicu a la segunda sílaba de la pallabra en munchos casos, convirtiéndose n'agudos vocablos que son llanos n'inglés modernu: mor<o>saale</o> "morsel", hat<o>cheat</o> "hatchet", di<o>neare</o> "dinner", rea<o>deare</o> "reader", wed<o>deen</o> "wedding", etc. (O'Rahilly 1932).

Gramática[editar | editar la fonte]

Verbos[editar | editar la fonte]

Les formes verbales del yola tienen traces de tipu arcaizante. La segunda y tercer persona del plural caltienen la desinencia -eth, como nel inglés de tiempos de Godofredo de Chaucer. El participiu de pasáu retien la y del inglés mediu como ee.[1]

Léxicu[editar | editar la fonte]

El vocabulariu compilado por Jacob Poole apúrrenos la mayor parte del léxicu conocíu en yola. Poole yera llabrador y cuáqueru. Yera natural de Growtown, na parroquia de Taghmon, asitiada na llende ente les baronías de Bargy y Shelmaliers.[2] Arrexuntó pallabres y frases qu'utilizaben les sos guardeses y xornaleros ente 1800 y 1827, añu de la so muerte.

Anque la mayor parte del so léxicu ye d'orixe anglosaxón, el yola tien munchos préstamos del irlandés y el francés.

Yola Inglés
a, ee (art. def.) the
dhing thing
fho who
ee-go gone
egast fear
yola, yole old

L'inglés actual nel sur del condáu de Wexford[editar | editar la fonte]

Diarmaid Ó Muirithe viaxó al sur del condáu de Wexford en 1978 col fin d'estudiar l'inglés faláu nesa área (Ó Muirithe 1997). Los sos informantes diben de los 40 a los 90 años. Ente otres munches, éstos son dellos vocablos que yeren entá d'usu corriente nesos años:

  • Amain: "Going on amain" = Llevase bien
  • Bolsker: Una persona pocu amigable *

Chy: Un pocu * Drazed: Gastáu, raído

  • Fash: "in a fash", confusu.
  • Keek: Espiar (en neerlandés: kijken)
  • Saak: tomar el sol, calecer delantre d'un fueu.

Exemplos[editar | editar la fonte]

Un cantar en yola[editar | editar la fonte]

Fade teil thee zo lournagh, co Joane, zo knaggee?
Th' weithest all curcagh, wafur, an puñe.
Lidge w'ouse an a milagh, tis gaay an louthee:
Huck nigher; y'art scuddeen; fartoo zo hachee?

Well, gosp, c'hull be zeid; mot thee fartoo, an fade;
Hai deight ouse var gabble, tell ee zin go t'glade.
Ch'am a stouk, an a donel; wou'll leigh out ee dey.
Th' valler w'speen here, th' lass ee chourch-hey.

Yerstey w'had a baree, gist ing oor hoane,
Aar gentrize ware bibbern, aamzil cou non stoane.
Yith Muzleare had ba hole, t'was mexe Tommeen,
At by mizluck was ee-pit t'drive in.

Joud an moud vrem earchee ete was ee Lough.
Zitch vaperreen, an shimmereen, fan ee-daf ee aar scoth!
Zitch blakeen, an blayeen, fan ee ball was ee-drowe!
Chote well aar aim was t'yie ouz n'eer a blowe.

Mot w'all aar boust, hi soon was ee-teight
At aar errone was var ameing 'ar 'ngish ee-height.
Zitch vezzeen, tarvizzeen, 'tell than w'ne'er zey.
Nore zichel ne'er well, nowe, nore ne'er mey.

(Esisten nueve versos más).

Traducción averada n'inglés actual

An Old Song

What ails you so melancholy, quoth John, so cross?
You seem all snappish, uneasy, and fretful.
Lie with us on the clover, 'tis fair and sheltered:
Come nearer; you're rubbing your back; why so ill tempered?

Well, gossip, it shall be told; you ask me what ails me, and for what;
You have put us in talk, till the sun goes to set.
I am a fool and a dunce; we'll id-y out the day.
The more we spend here, the less in the churchyard.

Yesterday we had a goal just in our hand.
Their gentry were quaking, themselves could not stand.
If Good-for-little had been buried, it had been my Tommy,
Who by misluck was prestái to drive in.

Throngs and crowds from each quarter were at the Lough;
Such vapouring and glittering when stript in their shirts!
Such bawling and shouting, when the ball was thrown!
I saw their intent was to give us ne'er a stroke.

But with all their bravado they were soon taught
That their errand was aiming to bring anguish upon them
Such driving, and struggling, 'till then we ne'er saw
Nor such never will, non, nor never may.

Númberos cardinales en yola[editar | editar la fonte]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
oane twye dhree vowér veeve zeese zebbem ayght neene dhen

Una carta empobinada al Lord Lieutenant en 1836[editar | editar la fonte]

Congratulatory address in the dialect of Forth and Bargy, presented to Earl Musgrave, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland on his visit to Wexford in 1836 taken from the Wexford Independent newspaper of 15 February 1860. The paper's editor Mr Edmund Hore writes:

The most remarkable fact, in reality, in connexion with the address is this. In all probability it was the first time regal or vice-regal ears were required to listen to word of such a dialect; an it is even still more probable that a like event will never happen again; for if the use of this old tongue dies out as fast for the next five-and-twenty years as it has for the same bygone period, it will be utterly extinct and forgotten before the present century shall have closed.

In order for a person not acquainted with the pronunciation of the dialect to form anything like an escurre of it, it is first necessary to speak slowly, and remember that the letter a has invariably the same sound, like a in “father”. Double ee sounds like y in “me”, and most words of two syllables the long accent is prestái on the last. To follow the English pronunciation completely deprives the dialect of its peculiarities.

To's Excellencie Constantine Harrie Phipps, y' Earle Mulgrave, Lord Lieutenant-Xeneral and Xeneral Governor of Ireland. Ye soumissive Spakeen o'ouz Dwelleres o' Baronie Forthe, Weisforthe.

MAI'T BE PLESANT TO TH'ECCELLENCIE, - Wee, Vassalès o' 'His Most Gracious majesty', Wilyame ee Vourthe, an, az wee verilie chote, na coshe and loyale dwellerès na Baronie Forthe, crave na dicke luckie acte t'uck neicher th' Eccellencie, an na plaine grabe o' oure yola talke, wi vengem o' core t'gie ours zense o' y gradès whilke be ee-dighte wi yer name; and whilke we canna zei, albeit o' 'Governere', 'Statesman', an alike. Yn ercha and aul o' while yt beeth wi gleezom o' core th' oure eyen dwytheth apan ye Vigere o'dicke Zouvereine, Wilyame ee Vourthe, unnere fose fatherlie zwae oure diaez be ee-spant, az avare ye trad dicke londe yer name waz ee-kent var ee vriene o' livertie, an He fo brake ye neckares o' zlaves. Mang ourzels – var wee dwytheth an Irelonde az ure genreale haim – y'ast, bie ractzom o'honde, ee-delt t'ouz ye laas ee-mate var ercha vassale, ne'er dwythen na dicke waie nar dicka. Wee dwyth ye ane fose dais be gien var ee guidevare o'ye londe ye zwae, - t'meyora pace an livertie, an, wi'oute vlynch, ee garde o' generale reights an poplare vartue. Ye pace – yea, we mai zei, ye vast pace whilke bee ee-stent owr ye londe zince th'ast ee-cam, proo'th, y'at wee alane needeth ye giftes o'generale rights, az be displayth bie ee factes o'thie goveremente. Ye state na dicke daie o'ye londe, na whilke be nar fash nar moile, albeit 'constitutional agitation', ye wake o'hopes ee-blighte, stampe na yer zwae be rare an lightzom. Yer name var zetch avancet avare ye, y'n'a dicke var hye, arent whilke ye brine o'zea an dye craggès o'noghanes cazed nae balke. Na oure gladès ana whilke we dellt wi' mattoke, an zing t'oure caulès wi plou, wee hert ee zough o'ye colure o' pace na name o' Mulgrave. Wi Irishmen ower generale houpes be ee-boud – az Irishmen, an az dwellerès na cosh an loyale o' Baronie Forthe, w'oul daie an ercha daie, our meines an oure gurles, praie var long an happie zins, shorne o'lournagh an ee-vilt wi benisons, an yersel and oure gude Zovereine, till ee zin o'oure daies be var aye be ee-go to'glade.

Traducción al inglés actual

To his Excellency, Constantine Henry Phipps, Earl Mulgrave, Lord Lieutenant-Xeneral, and Xeneral Governor of Ireland. The humble Address of the Inhabitants of the Barony of Forth, Wexford.

MAY IT PLEASE YOUR EXCELLENCY – We, the subjects of his Most Gracious Majesty, William IV, and, as we truly believe, both faithful and loyal inhabitants of the Barony of Forth, beg leave at this favourable opportunity to approach your Excellency, and in the simple dress of our old dialect to pour forth from the strength (or fullness) of our hearts, our sense (or admiration) of the qualities which characterise your name, and for which we have non words but of 'Governor', 'Statesman', etc. In each and every condition it is with joy of heart that our eyes rest upon the representative of the Sovereign, William IV, under whose paternal rule our days are spent; for before your foot pressed the soil, your name was known to us as the friend of liberty, and he who broke the fetters of the slave. Unto ourselves – for we look on Ireland to be our common country – you have with impartial hand ministered the laws made for every subject, without regard to this party or that. We behold in you one whose days are devoted to the welfare of the land you govern, to promote peace and liberty – the uncompromising guardian of the common right and public virtue. The peace – yes, we may say the profound peace – which overspreads the land since your arrival, proves that we alone stood in need of the enjoyment of common privileges, as is demonstrated by the results of your government. The condition, this day, of the country, in which is neither tumult nor disorder, but that constitutional agitation, the consequence of disappointed hopes, confirms your rule to be rare and enlightened. Your fame for such came before you even into this retired spot, to which neither the waters of the sea below nor the mountains above caused any impediment. In our valleys, where we were digging with the spade, or as we whistled to our horses in the plough, we heard the distant sound of the wings of the dove of peace, in the word Mulgrave. With Irishmen our common hopes are inseparably bound up – as Irishmen, and as inhabitants, faithful and loyal, of the Barony Forth, we will daily and every day, our wives and our children, implore long and happy days, free from melancholy and full of blessings, for yourself and our good Sovereign, until the sun of our lives be gone down the dark valley (of death).

Notes[editar | editar la fonte]

  1. 1,0 1,1 Poole's Glossary (1867), p.129, p. 133
  2. Jacob Poole of Growtown.

Referencies[editar | editar la fonte]

  • Poole's Glossary (1867) – Ed. Rev. William Barnes (Editorial 'Observations')
  • Poole's Glossary (1979) – Ed. Dr. D. O'Muirithe & T.P. Dolan (Corrected Etymologies)
  • O'Rahilly, T. F (1932). «The Accent in the English of South-east Wexford», Irish Dialects Past and Present. Dublin: Browne and Nolan, 94–98. Reprinted 1972 by the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 0-901282-55-3.
  • The Anglu-Norman and their English Dialect of South-East Wexford by Diarmaid ó Muirithe, from the book The English Language in Ireland, a compilation of lectures from the Thomas Davis Lecture Series broadcast on RTE radio and published in printed form in 1977. ISBN 0-85342-452-7
  • The Dialect of Forth and Bargy Co. Wexford, Ireland (1996) — T P Dolan and Diarmaid ó Muirithe, published by Four Courts Press Ltd ISBN 1-85182-200-3
  • Hickey, Raymond (2002). A Source Book for Irish English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing, 28-29. ISBN 90-272-3753-0 (EU), ISBN 1-58811-209-8 (US)

Enllaces esternos[editar | editar la fonte]

Idioma yola