Raza (clasificación de seres humanos)

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Europa soportada por África y América. William Blake, 1796.

El términu raza ye utilizáu pa definir grupos con carauterístiques hereditaries comunes nos que se subdividen delles especies animales.

Dende los años 1940, los científicos evolucionistes refugaron la conceptualización de raza onde un númberu finitu de carauterístiques esenciales pueden usase pa determinar el númberu de races. Munchos científicos evolucionistes y sociales cunten qu'a la definición común de raza, o a cualquier definición de raza rellativa a los humanos, fálta-y rigor y validez taxonómica. Argumenten que son imprecises y arbitraries, y que les races reparaes varíen según la cultura esaminada.

Parte de los antropólogos postulen que la especie humana ta compuesta por una única raza y qu'ésta s'estrema en distintes etnies, que de la mesma s'estremen en pueblos. Estes teoríes antropolóxiques apaecieron nos años 1960 en parte como reaición frente a les teoríes científiques rellatives al predeterminismu biolóxicu que predeterminaron el segregacionismu y la discriminación racial, presentes por aquel tiempu nel contestu de los países occidentales. Tamién fueron influyentes les resultancies de les investigaciones de los antropólogos Franz Boes y más llueu Claude Lévi-Strauss que resaltaron los enclinos etnocéntricos de toa cultura. A mediaos de la década 1950, la UNESCO encamentó sustituyir la noción de raza humana, considerada non científica y confusa, pola d'etnia, basada más nes diferencies culturales (llingua, relixón, costumes, etc.).

Na antropoloxía moderna la distinción ente factores biolóxicos y étnicos o culturales puramente dichos ta meyor definida. Ello débese a los enfoques multidisciplinarios presentes na actualidá.

Bibliografía[editar | editar la fonte]

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