Idioma de Goguryeo

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L'idioma de Goguryeo foi faláu nel antiguu reinu de Goguryeo (37 BCAD 668), unu de los Tres Reinos de Corea. Esta llingua conozse tamién como goguryeo o Goguryano.

Clasificación[editar | editar la fonte]

Esisten delles hipótesis sobre la clasificación de la llingua, pero toos elles son aldericaes y considérase un problema abiertu.[1]

La llingua namái se conoz por unes poques pallabres, la mayoría de les cualos suxuren que se trata d'una llingua emparentada col Siella ya influyida de la mesma poles llingües tunguses. Otru autores partidarios de la hipótesis altaica suelen clasificar a la llingua de Goguryeo dientro de la familia altaica. La mayoría d'especialistes koreanos consideren que la llingua de Goguryeo taba emparentada coles llingües altaiques. Amás atopáronse fuertes similaridades ente les llingües falaes en Baekje y en Goguryeo, lo cual ye consistente coles lleendes que describen Baekje como un reinu fundáu polos fíos del fundador del reinu de Goguryeo. Los nomes en Goguryano pa diversos puestos de l'alministración son en gran midida similares a los de Baekje y Siella.

Llingües fuyu[editar | editar la fonte]

Dellos autores propunxeron la llamada familia fuyu qu'incluyiría a les llingües de los estaos de Buyeo, Goguryeo, Baekje según el xaponés antiguu. Los documentos chinos suxuren que les llingües de Goguryeo, Buyeo, Okjeo oriental y Gojoseon yeren similares, anque la llingua de Goguryeo difería significantivamente de la de Malgal (Mohe). Dellos autores indiquen que los idiomes de Goguryeo, Baekje y Siella, similares ente sigo (posiblemente dialeutos) podríen ser antecesores del idioma coreanu. Otros sostienen que sería antecesor del idioma xaponés. [2][3][4]

Comparanza léxica[editar | editar la fonte]

Del idioma de Goguryeo apenes se conoz. Tan solo hai disponible una llista de topónimos y pallabres, de les cualos la so pronunciación tampoco se conoz con exactitú. La tabla siguiente compara la pronunciación figurada de dichos términos, con otros idiomes orientales:

Términu Goguryeo Llingües túrquiques Mongol Xaponés antiguu Xaponés Baekje Siella Coreanu mediu Coreanu Idiomes tunguses Jurchen Manchú Evenki
君主 kʌi / kai(皆)
kai-sɐ(皆次)
qaγan(可汗)
kagan
kaγan(可汗) ki1el mio1("king, emperor, monarch") kimi("you") ka(瑕)
kisi(吉支)
nirimɯ(君)
kan(干)
kɯm(今)
kahan
kɯi긔(王)
nim kɯm
nim kɯm
*** *** han ***
善射 jumong,chumo
(朱蒙,鄒牟)
*** jəmə("noted bow"),
Jobe-Mergen
tomo("shooter's tool")
tomu("friend, follower")
tama("excellent,important,soul")
tuma("tip")
tomoe(emblem of tomu)
tomu-
tama
tsume("nail,claw")
*** *** *** *** *** *** jolin-manga ,
julil-muəl(卓琳莽阿)
***
so(蘇)
sol(召尸, silver)
*** *** *** *** so
(所)
so 素 ("gold") *** sö("metal")
söh 쇳
*** *** sele("iron")
šun("sun")
sigūn("sun")
nəi-miuət/namer
(乃勿)
*** *** namari namari *** *** *namɔr nap/납 *** *** *** ***
復舊土 ta mul(多勿) *** *** tabi (度:time; whenever) tabi/tambi tamlo *** *** taɕi ("again")
tø- ("re-")
tam
*** *** tabu-(to estrema,to tear) ***
北(背後) je(提)
jwat(絶)
椽那部,提那部,絶奴部,後部
arka("back") hoina (布里亚特语 huainə)
utara
umara
tʃy("back") se("back,height") *** *** tuih tui
("back, behind")
xama *** amargi
amasi("back")
***
南(前方) kuan(灌)
(灌奴部)
kuzey,Ön(front) *** kaɸo("face")
kan-(予:"pre-")
kao("look, face")
kana-(叶:to serve,to get one's wish)
久知下(kujiha) *** *** kət("surface, look") *** *** julergi ***
東(左) źwən,sun(順),
(順奴部)
doğo,sol(left) źeü ,
źegün
a-dʒuma/a-duma("east") azuma 得安(dɯkan) *** *** ön("left")
sae("east")
źun *** dergi jun
jəgin("left")
西(右) yən (涓),
(涓奴部)
batı ürüne ,
barun
yo-(善:"good")
yá-(否:"non,foul")
yo-/i-("good,correct,suitable,agreeable")
iya/yá-(disagreeable)
*** *** *** orɯn("right")
parɯn("right")
hanɯi(west)
xangid *** wargi anŋū(right)
*** taš cilaɣo(n) (古蒙古语)
culuu (喀尔喀蒙古
šuluu(n) (布里亚特语)
isi ishi turak(珍惡) *** tōlh tōl *** *** tahan("steppingstones") ***
巌,峴,岑 pa-・ιəi,pua-・ιəi*pàI,pa'i /pua-斤ei,*paxe
巴衣,波衣,波兮
*** *** iɸa / iɸaɸo
(probably unrelated)
iwao ("great rock, bedrock") *** *** pahoy(巌)巴衣,바회 pawi pax(石・崖)
尼夫赫语
*** wehe ***
土地 non
内/奴~弩/悩
nori
奴閭
*** ńurū nu/non(野"land") non non nu¨~nu¨ri/nε (世) *** nuri na (土地) na na(土地),noro(-n) ***
(nua) > na / non
內,那,奴,惱
ra(羅)
ili ulus(<*hulu-s<* bulu-s) nu/na() *** puri (夫里) *** narah nara guru-n(< * buru-n) guru-n(< * buru-n) gurun ***
hol / holo
(忽)
kuru / kolo (溝婁,屈, 骨)
qol-γan küri-yen 'fence, hedge, device',/qol-γan koɸori (郡) kōri *** *** *** koɯl (邑, 郡)
kol
kur ~kur ~kuran *** kuran~ kuren (城, 柵:"castle, citadl")
golo(省:province)
***
kabəl 加火 *** *** kaɸis-("middle, help")
kaɸi("egg,result,worth")
kais-
kai
*** *** kaβɔn
가ㅸㄴ
kaun(-de)
-gaus/-aus 가웃/아웃("half")
*** *** *** ***
最大 māk (莫)
ma(馬)
makhara(莫何邏)
莫何邏繡支,莫何何羅支
*** *** ma-(prefix to mean "real/great/true/perfect")
makana-(truly beloved)
ma- ma *** *** mal-말
mad 맏("first;eldest;oldest")
maŋga ("strong") *** maŋga ("difficult; tough, strong; somewhat more, somewhat better") maŋa ("strong")
主事者 makhaharaji
(莫何何羅支/太大兄)
~ji("guy")
*** *** ma-
kakaɸo-(undertake, be under orders,hold)>*kagaɸo-
toto/titi(father)
dʒidʒi("old guy,grandfather")
ma-
kakaer-(hold)
clica
jiji/ji-
*** kakgan
(角干)
mad
hal-
~ji("guy")
mad
hal-
~ji("guy")
*** *** *** ***
首領 makli-ji(莫離支)
~ji("guy")
baš(head) *** ma-
kur-i("to command, to manage")
dʒi("old guy,grandfather")
ma-
kuri-(繰)
ji
*** malip-kan(麻立干)
hasə(河西)
(mari)
maruha(瑪樓下,抹樓下)
məri(head)
~ji("guy")
maru("ridge")
*** *** *** ***
süni (首泥) *** *** so1ra ("sky; tip, top, above (the trees, etc.)") sora("sky") *** *** sunɯrk 수늙 suri 수리 ("top of the head") *** *** šun("sun")
sukdun("air")
***
dat/§ap (or tar)
(達)
*** *** taka-/daka-("high") taka-/daka 達率 *** *** *** *** *** dean ("high")
dekde- ("to rise")
***
tara / tal (達)
taγ("mountain") aɣula(n) (古蒙古语)
ūl (喀尔喀蒙古
ūla (布里亚特语
aulə达斡尔语
tara(多羅)
yama(山)/mure(山)/mori(森)
yama *** 督 tɔrɔ(山),
tara(多禮,多羅)
(土地)
moyh(山) me-뫼
tang,tal(土地)
tuk(丘)
orɯm (济州方言)
*** *** alin
balta(田地)
mulu("ridge of mountain")
***
el to (吐)
töpü *** take2(岳)
tutu-el mio
tum-(to stack,to pile,to gather)
take
tsutsumi
tsum-
*** *** *** 언덕 əntək
둑 tuk(堤)
*** *** do-("to stop") ***
樹木 kιənul / naro?
(斤乙)
i¨("forest")/i¨γac(树) *** ki2 / ke2 ~ ko2kunu-ki(a kind of oak)  ki
kunu-gi
*** *** 斤:nal(訓)/kɯn근 kɯru 그루 ("stump; unit for counting trees")
namu 나무 (树、树木)
*** *** *** ***
el mio (米)
mie,moru(買,模盧)
mul(勿)
mu(武)
*** mören(江, 海)
müren (沐漣) /moron (木連) (Khitanese)
el mio1du/el mio1/el mio1n- mizu el mio(彌) *** mɨl mul mu mu 沒 muke mū("water")
泉(井) əɯl(於乙):井
iri(伊梨):泉
bul-a-q/bul-a-γ(喷泉、泉水) ɯs (水"water") wi (井、水库、灌溉水塘) i *** ɯl(乙) umɯl ("well") umul ("well") eri~erri(小河、川)
尼夫赫语
*** üla (大河、江) ***
池沼 nemi / naymi
(内米)
*** namug ("marsh, swamp") ? nami1 ("wave") nami el mio(r)ji
(蜜地,彌知)
*** *** ? nɛnmul ("stream")
mos 못 ("pond")
nɯpʰ 늪 ("swamp")
namu, lamu ("sía, ocean; lake" 海) *** mūsa ("swamp") ***
kur(屈)
na(那)
köl("lake") *** kaɸa kawa nari(那利)
久麻那利
*** kɔrɔm 가람
nāyh 냏,내
karam 가람
nɛː
*** *** ula ***
padal
(波旦)
*** *** wata wada-tsu-el mio("The god of Sía") *** 波珍 padɔl padah~parʌl pada 바다 *** namu namu ***
huət-ts‘ii/ku ërtsi/k útsi< *kutui, >* kolci/ko-ts‘ii
(忽次/古次/串)
*** 훌츠qurc(喀尔喀蒙古)("skewer, spit" 串) kutu~kuti/kuti < *kutui kuchi *** *** koj 곶 ("skewer, spit; promontory" 串) kulrε (Jeju dialect)
kul (South Jeolla dialect)
*** *** *** ***
進入 ・ιi/*i
(伊)
*** ire-
dir- 进入 dir- *** *** ip(口)/ip(門戸) dir-(to arrive; to come)
ip
i-(入) *** ibe-("to get foward") ***
ʃιəo/*sü
*** *** zu("new, present, developing,a gleam")
suga-("fresh")
suga-suga-s- *** say say (새) sɛ *** iche ice ***
ʃιəo/*sü
*** *** usi ushi *** *** ʃyo/쇼 so *** *** exa("castrated cow") ***
o-sie/o-s^i¨ʌŋ
烏斯/烏生
*doŋuz > domuz *** usi ("ox; cattle")
wi ("swine")
*** *o-nʲi
(猪耳)
*** totʰ twɛːji, toyaji(dialect), tochi(dialect) *** *** ulgiyan("pig")
ulha("domestic animal")
***
鹿 kosya
(古斯也)
*** *** kuzika shika *** *** *** korani
고라니 ("Manchurian elk")
kōrɛŋi, korɛi (Gyeongsang dialect)
*** *** kandahan ("a kind of deer") ***
*** *** mori~muri uma~muma uma *** *** mʌl/(馬) mal mori
(Nanai)
*** morin ***
・ιo-sie ,
nərə-si
(於斯)
*** *** wono2 ono *** *** *odzgɔy
(烏子蓋) ("ax")
nɔlh 날ㅎ ("blade")
nal (칼)날 ("blade")
nas ("sickle; scythe")
tōkki ("ax")
*** *** anjikū ("hatchet") ***
nərə-si, ə-si,
(於斯)
*** osy/esy 阿斯(寬大:gererous, tolerant)
nalai
naras-o("roll,to level off")
vos-o("transcend, surpass")
y-si("right,wide,noble,enough")
naras-o("to level off")
vos-o("to transcend, to press, to push")
*** *** 어위 (< *어쉬) nəlbɯn 넓은
nəlb
nərɯn
*** očo 我撮(寬) ončo(廣:wast) ***
nərəgi
əji(於支)
*älig > el ("hand") *** tadamgi(arm)
atʃi(foot,walk,rain,money)
ashi *** *** nʌlgɛ narɛ, nalgɛ 날개 *** *** asχa ***
・ιo-sie/*ye
(於斯)
*** *** yo2ko2(横)/yo2k-(避) yoko/yokeru *** *** əs/엇 əs *** *** *** ***
tan/el toən/t‘ən
(旦,頓,呑)
*** *** tani tani *** *** tʌn~el toʌn("village", 村) *** *** *** *** ***
ninəŋ-biuʌt
仍伐
*** *** ina-ɸo("ear of rice")
el mio2("fruit, seed, grain")
nebar-("stickiness of rice")
inaho
nebar-
*** *** pyə("rice plant; unhulled rice") nuy("grains of unhulled rice amongst hulled rice") *** *** *** ***
kuət-・ιəi
(骨衣)
*** *** kata-("tough,firm") katai("tough,stiff") *** ka¨cʰɔ¨l kəcʰɯl- (荒) kəchil-
kud-
*** *** kata-("to become hard, to become rough") ***
ka-ʃιi
(加尸)
kerci-("to cut, to dig trenches") *** kar-("to plow") kar- *** *** karai(木[木+欠]・鍬, kal-(plow)
kal(刀)
kal- gerbe-("break, snap")
(Nanai)
*** halhan(犂先)/halhan~halgan(犂[金+華]) gerbe-("break, snap")
ka-(・a)
(加阿)
kera *** hai("edge, blade")kari("edge") hai
kari
*** *** kʌs *** *** kaja-("to cut")
huwesi-("cutter, small blade")
***
toŋ-pιoəi
(冬非)
*** *** tubura(丸)/maro(丸:"round") tsubura *** *** el toŋgɯl-(圓) el toŋgɯl-(圓} *** *** torho-("to roll,to circle") ***
anʃi, anʒip, ɣwando
(安市,安十,丸都)
*** ənduhə达斡尔语 azi("reason,value") aji(taste) *** *** *** al 알 (x)elū- *** umhan
muheren
elū
tor (廻) *** *** tar-(足る:"enough,last,to reach") tarir- *** *** tʌri tari 다리 *** *** juru(numberal for something pair up) ***
tʰjʌr (鐵) *** *** *** *** *** *** tʌri tʰʌr 털 *** *** *** ***
biar/bιεt
(別)
*** *** ɸy *** *** *** pʌl *** *** *** fe("ex-, past, former") ***
pιo-sie/pιo-so
(扶蘇/扶蘇)
*** *** matu matsu bu(扶,負)
so(蘇)
*** sol(松)/pos(樺) sol,sonamu,so *** *** bahiya("pine cone") ***
bιuk-sie/puk
(伏斯)
*** *** ɸuka-si/puka- fuka- *** *** kiph o·n kiph-
puk ("deeply")
*** *** *** ***
yia-ʃιi
(也尸)
*** *** itatʃi(weasel) itachi(weasel) *** *** yezï ~ yezɣ-
("fox")
yəo ("fox")
여시yəsi(dialect)
*** *** *** ***
ιi-bιoʌt
(伊伐)
*** *** iɸa("residences")
iɸa-udo/iɸa-ɸito("family,genealogy")
iɸawi/iɸewi("domiciles,houses")
i-ba-sho("one's whereabouts" sho is a aponderen word) *** *** *** iut (隣) *** *** imiya-("to gather togather") ***
sat
(薩)
*** *** sai, see, zai, zae
(dialeutal Japanese words for "icicle" or "ice on the branches of trees or on the surface of a body of water")
*** *** *** səri səri *** *** juhe ***
ka-tʃιy
(加支)
*** *** kati/katʃin(brown/lush),katute(in the past) katʃte *** *** *** kəch-(蕪)
kis- ("lush, overgrown with weeds, overrun with plants")
*** *** *** ***
ko-・ιəi
(古衣)
qoγo *** kukuɸi1~kubi1("swan") kukui/kugui("swan") *** *** kohay
kon
koni *** *** gaha("bird, raven")
gasha("big bird")
***
群落 ul (于尸) uruk ("cla") ulus ("people, nation, tribe, horde") udi ("cla, family; the standing of one's family, the social status of one's family, lineage, birth; surname") uchi("me, home, family") *** *** ul("relations; relatives; kinsfolk; cla")
uri ("we, us; the Korean people, Koreans")
*** *** *** urse ("people")
uce("entrance")
***
kʌi-ʃιi
(皆尸)
*** *** ki1 ("fang; tusk") *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
pii-lιεt
(比烈)
biri *** ɸi1ra-(比良:flat,level)
taira("flat")
hirata-
taira
*** *** *** pʌl *** *** ba("field, district")
pile-("to confirm, to criticize")
tehere-("to flat, to be equal")
***
母親 yá chi
(也次)
Ana *** ɸaɸa("mother")/oya("parent") haha, oya *** ***
əzi
어미əel mio
아매,에마 ame,ema(north dialect)
*** eniyen a ja ***
嬰兒 gιəo-sie / kus / kyus
(仇斯)
koto(儿子,匈奴語)
kız (女孩、女儿)
O'gul
*** ko1 (子) kodomo *** *** *** koma(童)
koma-(小-)
*** omo jui("kid") kuŋa ("child")
komok
(功木)
*** *** kuma kuma koma *** kom kōm *** *** *** ***
o-sie-həm
(烏斯含)
tawïsγan *** usagi1 / wosagi1 usagi *** *** thos-gi 톳기 tho-ggi 토끼 *** *** *** ***
見面 pʌk/*pak
(伯)
bak-("to see, to look; to find") *** mak-(設:"to obtain,to prepare,to make")
ɸak-(別:"to see, to know,to understand")>*wakar-
ɸakar-(諮・計:"to consult,to talk, to obtain")
mōker-
wakar-
hakar-
*** *** poizʌp- ("to humbly show oneself, to meet (an honored person)") po-("to see, to look")/ poyp-("to have an audience with, to meet (an honored person)")
pak
*** baka- ("to look for, to seek, to search") baha-("to get, to obtain") baka-("to find")
ma
(馬)
*** *** ma- ("truely, really") ma- *** *** modir- mōjir- ("harsh; severe; cruel") *** manga(難:hard) maŋga(堅、難"hard") maŋa
心/胸 kιo-sιi
(居尸)
göğüs kökün ko2ko2ro2("heart")/koro("oneself") kokoro *** *** *** kogäŋi (核心)/ kesʰɯm (胸、心) *** *** huhun (乳、乳房) ***
mai-tʃιi
(買尸)
*** maŋgirsun(野蒜) el mio1ra(韮) nira ("garlic chives") *** *** manʌl
(蒜)
manɯl *** *** maca ("garlic chives") ***
tsʌm
(斬)
*** *** tukene("root,knot,joint") tʃukene *** pul?(根) pulhuy(根) ppuri tʃamγ(根株)
尼夫赫语
*** da ***
kɯl/kιən-ʃιi
(斤尸)
*** *** kak-(to write)
kuk-/*kurum-(to collect, to form,to bind)
ko2to2("word, speech, language")
kak-
kukur-/kurum-
koto
*** *** kɯl kɯl *** herse hergen ***
ko-ʃie
(古斯)
*** gas kusiro2("bracelet") kushiro *** *** kusɯl ("jewel") kusɯl *** γun gu ***
dzei〈tsei〉-ts‘ii
斉次/濟次
*** *** tʃuk-(透), tʃuki(隙) suki ("chink, gap, vulnerable point") *** *** *** t'ul-(透), tɯm(隙)*** *** *** *** ***
kap,kap-pii
甲,甲比
qapca("gorge, ravine"), qapi¨γ("Gate") *** kaɸi1 ("gorge, strait, narrow valley") kubomi *** *** *** kul (穴) *** *** *** ***
mir, mil
(密)
siet/s^ïei
(悉/史)
bis(5) gurav el mio1 el mio *** mil sei/səih 셋 sʰet̚ *** ilan ilan ***
ütsi,uci,üc,
uca,uchha
(于次,弓次)
üç(3) tabun itu itsu *** *** tasul (打戌) tasət
닷 tah
dügün sunja sunja ***
nan-・ιən,
nanən,nanun,
nanin
(難隠)
Yeti *** añada añada *** *** (n)ìlgɯp(一急) (n)ìlgúp naden naden naden ***
tək,duk
(德)
on
toquz(9)
arav to2/to2wo tō- *** *** *** 열 yəl(10)
온on(100)
즈믄chɯmun(1000)
juwa juwan juwan ʒuwan
*kəmər, kəmhək
(今勿)
Qara *** kuro1 kuro *** *** kəm-/검- 검 kʌm *** *** kara ***
nə γei
ʃιi-lap
(奈兮 / 尸臘)
Aq *** sira(白) shiro *** *** hʌy-(白) hʌy-
hin
hayan
*** *** šara-("to become white")
šeyen("white")
šanggiyan("white")
***
s^a-bιuk
s^a-pιoəi-kιən
sa(i)puk, sa(i)pikon
sapi
沙伏, 沙非斤
Qyzyl *hulaɣan > ulaan so2ɸo<*so2po/so2ɸo(赭,朱)/sa(接頭語) *** supi(赤鳥) sapi(泗沘) sitpɯk(赤) 붉은pulgɯn
시뻘건sippəlgən("deep rede")
seppəlgən
bug(bulg)
*** *** fulgiyan ***
kweyru/kuət *** *** ki2-~ kú- ki(iro) *** *** *** *** *** *** suwayan ***
puruk/bιoʌt-lιək
(伐力)
*** *** mido midori *** *** phɯrɯn ("blue, green") pharan
phurɯn ("blue, green")
parah
*** *** *** ***

Ver tamién[editar | editar la fonte]

Referencies[editar | editar la fonte]

Notes[editar | editar la fonte]

  1. Journal of Inner and East Asian Studies, 2, December 2005
  2. Fan Ye, Book of the Later Han, volume 85; the Dongyi Liezhuan
  3. Wei Shou, Book of Wei, volume 100; the Liezhuan 88, the Wuji
  4. Li Dashi, History of Northern Dynasties, volume 94; the Liezhuan 82, the Wuji

Bibliografía[editar | editar la fonte]

  • Beckwith, C. I. (2004). Koguryo, the language of Japan's continental relatives: an introduction to the historical-comparative study of the Japanese Koguryoic languages with a preliminary description of Archaic northeastern Middle Chinese. Brill's Japanese studies library, v. 21. Boston: Brill. ISBN 90-04-13949-4
  • Beckwith (2006). "Methodological Observations on Some Recent Studies of the Early Ethnolinguistic History of Korea and Vicinity." Altai Hakpo 2006, 16: 199-234.
  • Beckwith (2006). "The Ethnolinguistic History of the Early Korean Peninsula Region: Japanese-Koguryoic and Other Languages in the Koguryo, Paekche, and Siella Kingdoms." Journal of Inner and East Asian Studies, 2006, Vol. 2-2: 34-64.
  • Beckwith (2007): Koguryo, the Language of Japan's Continental Relatives: An Introduction to the Historical-Comparative Study of the Japanese-Koguryoic Languages, with a Preliminary Description of Archaic Northeastern Middle Chinese. Brill Academic Publishers, 2004. ISBN 90-04-13949-4. Second edition, 2007. ISBN 90-04-16025-5
  • http://thomaspellard.ryukyu.googlepages.com/reviewKoguryro.pdf

Enllaces esternos[editar | editar la fonte]

Xaponés[editar | editar la fonte]

Inglés[editar | editar la fonte]




Idioma goguryeo