Diferencies ente revisiones de «Idioma armeniu occidental»

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Preferencies llingüístiques
m (Preferencies llingüístiques)
El '''armeniu occidental''' ye unu de los dos [[dialectodialeuto|bloques dialectalesdialeutales]] del [[idioma armeniu]], una [[llingua indoeuropea]] falada pola [[diáspora armenia]], principalmente en [[Norteamérica]], [[Suramérica]], [[Europa]] y sobremanera nel [[Próximu Oriente]] sacante en [[Irán]]. Ye tamién falada por una pequenu comunidá en [[Turquía]]. Pero l'armeniu occidental ye faláu por namá un pequenu porcentaxe de los armenios en Turquía, con 18 per cientu ente la comunidá polo xeneral y un 8 per cientu ente los mozos.<ref>[http://www.panorama.am/en/politics/2010/09/29/r-melqonyan-book/ “Review of Istanbul's Armenian community history”]</ref> Foise desenvolviendo mientres el sieglu XIX, y ta basáu nel dialectudialeutu armeniu de [[Istambul]]. L'armeniu occidental en Turquía defínese como definitivamente en peligru de [[Llingua muerta|estinción]].<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/http://www.bianet.org/english/kategori/english/112728/unesco-15-languages-endangered-in-turkey UNESCO: 15 Languages Endangered in Turkey, by T. Korkut, 2009]</ref>
 
== Referencies ==
|-
! align="left" | [[Mid vowel|Mid]]
| class="nounderlines" style="text-align:center" | {{IPA|[[Open-mid front unrounded vowel|ɛ]]}}&nbsp;&nbsp;(է, ե) <ref name="context_sensitive">The choice of Armenian symbol depends on the vowel's context in the word. See the ''Orthography'' section [[#Orthography|below]] for details.</ref>
| class="nounderlines" style="text-align:center" | {{IPA|[[Open-mid front rounded vowel|œ]]}}&nbsp;&nbsp;(էօ)
| class="nounderlines" style="text-align:center" | {{IPA|[[Schwa|ə]]}}&nbsp;&nbsp;(ը)
|style="text-align:center;" | մայր
|style="text-align:center;" | "mother"
|Similar to English m'''y'''.
|-
|class="nounderlines" style="text-align:center;font-size:120%" | {{IPA|yɪ}}
| &nbsp;
| class="nounderlines" style="text-align:center;"|{{IPA | [[Voiceless uvular fricative | χ]]}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;(խ)
| class="nounderlines" style="text-align:center;"|{{IPA | [[Voiceless glottal fricative | h]]}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;(հ, յ)<ref name=autogenerated1>The choice of Armenian symbol(s) depends on the context of the consonant within a word. See the ''Orthography'' section [[#Orthography|below]] for details.</ref>
|-
![[Voiced consonant|Voiced]]
The differences in phonology between Western Armenian and [[Classical Armenian]] phonology include the distinction of [[Stop consonant|stops]] and [[Affricate consonant|affricates]].
 
First, while [[Grabar|Classical Armenian]] has a three-way distinction of stops and affricates: one voiced and two voiceless — a plain version and an [[Aspiration (phonetics)|aspirated]] one — Western Armenian has kept only a two-way distinction — one voiced and one aspirated. For example, Classical has three billabial stops: {{IPA|[b]}} (<բ>), {{IPA|[p]}} (<պ>), and {{IPA|[pʰ]}} (<փ>); Western Armenian, has two billabial stops: {{IPA|[b]}} (<պ>) and {{IPA|[pʰ]}} (<բ> or <փ>).
 
Second, Western Armenian has shifted the Classical Armenian ''voiced'' stops and ''voiced'' affricates into ''aspirated'' stops and ''aspirated'' affricates, and replaced the ''plain'' stops and ''plain'' affricates with ''voiced'' ones.
## voicing of Classical {{IPA|/ʧ/}} (ճ) to {{IPA|/ʤ/}}
 
As a result, a word like {{IPA|[ʤoɹ]}} (spelled ջուր in [[Classical Armenian]], 'water') is cognate with Western Armenian {{IPA|[ʧʰoɹ]}} (also spelled ջուր). However, [tʰoɹ]}} ('grandson') and {{IPA|[kʰaɹ]}} ('stone') are pronounced identically in Classical and Western Armenian.
 
====Differences in Phonology from Eastern Armenian====
The difference in phonology between Western Armenian and [[Eastern Armenian]] phonology also lies in the distinction of [[Stop consonant|stops]] and [[Affricate consonant|affricates]] (as in the difference with Classical Armenian).
 
First, Eastern Armenian is notable for shifting the plain stops and plain affricates from Classical Armenian to [[ejective consonant]]s. Therefore, while [[Eastern Armenian]] has a three-way distinction of stops and affricates: one voiced and two voiceless — an ejective version and an [[Aspiration (phonetics)|aspirated]] one — Western Armenian has only a two-way distinction — one voiced and one aspirated. For example, Eastern Armenian has three billabial stops: {{IPA|[b]}} (<բ>), {{IPA|[p']}} (ejective, <պ>), and {{IPA|[pʰ]}} (<փ>); Western Armenian, has two billabial stops: {{IPA|[b]}} (<պ>) and {{IPA|[pʰ]}} (<բ> or <փ>).
 
Second, Western Armenian has shifted the Classical Armenian ''voiced'' stops and ''voiced'' affricates into ''aspirated'' stops and ''aspirated'' affricates, and replaced the ''plain'' stops and ''plain'' affricates with ''voiced'' ones.
==Orthography==
{{main|Traditional Armenian orthography}}
Western Armenian uses [[Traditional Armenian Orthography|''traditional'' Armenian orthography]], also known as ''classical'' orthography or ''Mashdotsian'' orthography. [[Reformed Armenian orthography]] (introduced in [[Soviet Armenia]] and still used by most Eastern Armenian speakers from the [[Republic of Armenia]]) has not been adopted in Western Armenian.
 
==Morphology==
===Nouns===
 
Western Armenian nouns have six [[Noun case|case]]s: [[Nominative case|Nominative]] (subject), [[Accusative case|Accusative]] (direct object), [[Genitive case|Genitive]] (possession), [[Dative case|Dative]] (indirect object), [[Ablative case|Ablative]] (origin) and [[Instrumental case|Instrumental]] (means). Of the six cases, the nominative and accusative are the same, and the genitive and dative are the same, meaning that nouns have four distinct forms for case. Nouns in Armenian also torne for number (singular and plural), but do not torne for gender (i.y. masculine or feminine).
 
Declension in Armenian is based on how the genitive is formed. There are several [[declension]]s, but two are the most used (genitive in ''i'', and genitive in ''o''):
 
{| border="0" width="100%"
===Articles===
 
Like English and some other languages, Armenian has definite and indefinite articles. The indefinite article in Western Armenian is {{IPA|/mə/}}, which follows the noun:
 
''mart mə'' ('a man', Nom.sg), ''martu mə'' ('of a man', Xen.sg)
===Verbs===
 
Verbs in Armenian are based on two basic series of forms, a "present" form and a "imperfect" form. From this, all other enterries and moods are formed with various particles and constructions. There is a third form, the preterite, which in Armenian is tense in its own right, and takes non other particles or constructions. (See also [[Armenian verbs]] for more detailed information.)
 
The "present" tense in Western Armenian is based on three [[Grammatical conjugation|conjugation]]s ('''a, y, i'''):
In vernacular language, the particle "gor" is added after the verb to indicate present progressive tense. The distinction is not made in literary Armenian.
 
" Yes kirk' g? gartam gor (I am reading the book)
 
The verb without any particles constitutes the subjunctive mood:

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